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  1. Why females engage in social polygyny remains an unresolved question in species where the resources provided by males maximize female fitness. In these systems, the ability of males to access several females, ...

    Authors: David Canal, Lotte Schlicht, Simone Santoro, Carlos Camacho, Jesús Martínez-Padilla and Jaime Potti

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Placentation has evolved multiple times among both chordates and invertebrates. Although they are structurally less complex, invertebrate placentae are much more diverse in their origin, development and positi...

    Authors: U. A. Nekliudova, T. F. Schwaha, O. N. Kotenko, D. Gruber, N. Cyran and A. N. Ostrovsky

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Avidins are biotin-binding proteins commonly found in the vertebrate eggs. In addition to streptavidin from Streptomyces avidinii, a growing number of avidins have been characterized from divergent bacterial spec...

    Authors: Olli H. Laitinen, Tanja P. Kuusela, Sampo Kukkurainen, Anssi Nurminen, Aki Sinkkonen and Vesa P. Hytönen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Asexually reproducing populations of single cells evolve through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Environmental conditions in which the evolution takes place define the emergent fitness landscap...

    Authors: Bhaskar Kumawat and Ramray Bhat

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The New Guinean archipelago has been shaped by millions of years of plate tectonic activity combined with long-term fluctuations in climate and sea level. These processes combined with New Guinea’s location at...

    Authors: Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Lloyd T. White, Helena Shaverdo, Athena Lam, Suriani Surbakti, Rawati Panjaitan, Bob Sumoked, Thomas von Rintelen, Katayo Sagata and Michael Balke

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. Comparative phylogeographic studies on rainforest species that are widespread in Central Africa often reveal genetic discontinuities within and between biogeographic regions, indicating (historical) barriers t...

    Authors: Samuel Vanden Abeele, Steven B. Janssens, Rosalía Piñeiro and Olivier J. Hardy

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Identifying factors shaping population genetic structure across continuous landscapes in the context of biogeographic boundaries for lineage diversification has been a challenging goal. The red muntjacs cover ...

    Authors: Bhim Singh, Ajit Kumar, Virendra Prasad Uniyal and Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. A striking aspect of evolution is that it often converges on similar trajectories. Evolutionary convergence can occur in deep time or over short time scales, and is associated with the imposition of similar se...

    Authors: Cory A. Berger, Michael S. Brewer, Nobuaki Kono, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Kazuharu Arakawa, Susan R. Kennedy, Hannah M. Wood, Seira A. Adams and Rosemary G. Gillespie

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in insects. The certain specialized structures may be used as weapons in male–male combats or as ornaments to enhance mating opportunities.

    Authors: Yan-jie Zhang, Peter J. M. Shih, Jun-you Wang, Maria E. McNamara, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren and Tai-ping Gao

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. Nbp35-like proteins (Nbp35, Cfd1, HCF101, Ind1, and AbpC) are P-loop NTPases that serve as components of iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) assembly machineries. In eukaryotes, Ind1 is present in mitochondria, and its ...

    Authors: Jan Pyrih, Vojtěch Žárský, Justin D. Fellows, Christopher Grosche, Dorota Wloga, Boris Striepen, Uwe G. Maier and Jan Tachezy

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Natural model systems are indispensable for exploring adaptations in response to environmental pressures. Sinocyclocheilus of China, the most diverse cavefish clade in the world (75 species), provide unique oppor...

    Authors: Ting-Ru Mao, Ye-Wei Liu, Madhava Meegaskumbura, Jian Yang, Gajaba Ellepola, Gayani Senevirathne, Cheng-Hai Fu, Joshua B. Gross and Marcio R. Pie

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is a viviparous teleost. We proposed that the rockfish ovarian wall had a similar function to the uterus of mammals previously. In the present study, the well-developed vascul...

    Authors: Jingjing Niu, Weihao Song, Rui Li, Haiyang Yu, Jian Guan, Jie Qi and Yan He

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. Phylogenomic approaches have great power to reconstruct evolutionary histories, however they rely on multi-step processes in which each stage has the potential to affect the accuracy of the final result. Many ...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Spillane, Troy M. LaPolice, Matthew D. MacManes and David C. Plachetzki

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:43

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. The bearded vulture is sparsely distributed across a wide geographic range that extends over three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia). Restriction to high-altitude mountainous habitats, low breeding rates, l...

    Authors: Melanie Streicher, Sonja Krüger, Franziska Loercher and Sandi Willows-Munro

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  15. It has been proposed that divergence in the gut microbiota composition between incipient species could contribute to their reproductive isolation. Nevertheless, empirical evidence for the role of gut microbiot...

    Authors: Camille Sottas, Lucie Schmiedová, Jakub Kreisinger, Tomáš Albrecht, Jiří Reif, Tomasz S. Osiejuk and Radka Reifová

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cherleria (Caryophyllaceae) is a circumboreal genus that also occurs in the high mountains of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we focus on a clade that diversified in the European High Mountains, which was...

    Authors: Abigail J. Moore, Jennifer A. Messick and Joachim W. Kadereit

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Recovering the historical patterns of selection acting on a protein coding sequence is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Mutation-selection models address this problem by explicitly modelling fixation rate...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ritchie, Tristan L. Stark and David A. Liberles

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:39

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  18. The circadian clock is a biological timing system that improves the ability of organisms to deal with environmental fluctuations. At the molecular level it consists of a network of transcription-translation fe...

    Authors: João M. Moreno, Tiago F. Jesus, Maria M. Coelho and Vitor C. Sousa

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:38

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: D. A. H. Peach, C. Carroll, S. Meraj, S. Gomes, E. Galloway, A. Balcita, H. Coatsworth, N. Young, Y. Uriel, R. Gries, C. Lowenberger, M. Moore and G. Gries

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:37

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:29

  20. Hemocyanin is the oxygen transporter of most molluscs. Since the oxygen affinity of hemocyanin is strongly temperature-dependent, this essential protein needs to be well-adapted to the environment. In Tectiple...

    Authors: Gabriela Giannina Schäfer, Veronika Pedrini-Martha, Daniel John Jackson, Reinhard Dallinger and Bernhard Lieb

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Lake Tanganyika belongs to the East African Great Lakes and is well known for harbouring a high proportion of endemic and morphologically distinct genera, in cichlids but also in paludomid gastropods. With abo...

    Authors: Wencke Krings, Marco T. Neiber, Alexander Kovalev, Stanislav N. Gorb and Matthias Glaubrecht

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Thamnophilidae birds are the result of a monophyletic radiation of insectivorous Passeriformes. They are a diverse group of 225 species and 45 genera and occur in lowlands and lower montane forests of Neotropi...

    Authors: Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Darren K. Griffin, Lucas G. Kiazim, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Patricia Caroline Mary O´Brien, Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith, Fengtang Yang, Alexandre Aleixo and Rebecca E. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs) constitute a common gene family found among animals, plants and microbes. Plant PEBP proteins play an important role in regulating flowering time, plant archit...

    Authors: Man Zhang, Ping Li, Xiaolan Yan, Jia Wang, Tangren Cheng and Qixiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Co-infection of endosymbionts in the same host is ubiquitous, and the interactions of the most common symbiont Wolbachia with other symbionts, including Spiroplasma, in invertebrate organisms have received increa...

    Authors: Huifang Guo, Na Wang, Hongtao Niu, Dongxiao Zhao and Zhichun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Julia Lanner, Fabian Gstöttenmayer, Manuel Curto, Benoît Geslin, Katharina Huchler, Michael C. Orr, Bärbel Pachinger, Claudio Sedivy and Harald Meimberg

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:30

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:17

  26. There is widespread interkingdom signalling between insects and microbes. For example, microbes found in floral nectar may modify its nutritional composition and produce odorants that alter the floral odor bou...

    Authors: D. A. H. Peach, C. Carroll, S. Meraj, S. Gomes, E. Galloway, A. Balcita, H. Coatsworth, N. Young, Y. Uriel, R. Gries, C. Lowenberger, M. Moore and G. Gries

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:29

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:37

  27. Land use practices are noted to contribute to changes in forest landscape composition. However, whereas studies have reported the intermix of land uses and forest patches and measured the direct impacts of lan...

    Authors: Williams Agyemang-Duah, Joseph Oduro Appiah and Dina Adei

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Dinoflagellates are a ubiquitous and ecologically important component of marine phytoplankton communities, with particularly notable species including those associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs) and thos...

    Authors: Tahnee Manning, Arjun Venkatesh Thilagaraj, Dmitri Mouradov, Richard Piola, Clare Grandison, Matthew Gordon, Jeff Shimeta and Aidyn Mouradov

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. We analyzed a combined segment (2032-bp) of the sex-determining region and the testis-specific protein of the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) gene to clarify the gene flow and phylogenetic relationships of the long-taile...

    Authors: Jeffrine J. Rovie-Ryan, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan and Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:26

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Animals use diverse antipredator mechanisms, including visual signalling of aversive chemical defence (aposematism). However, the initial evolution of aposematism poses the problem that the first aposematic in...

    Authors: Lingzi Wang, Stephen J. Cornell, Michael P. Speed and Kevin Arbuckle

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:25

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Social insects vary widely in social organization, yet the genetical and ecological factors influencing this variation remain poorly known. In particular, whether spatially varying selection influences the mai...

    Authors: Sacha Zahnd, Amaranta Fontcuberta, Mesut Koken, Aline Cardinaux and Michel Chapuisat

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Male genitalia are thought to ensure transfer of sperm through direct physical contact with female during copulation. However, little attention has been given to their pre-copulatory role with respect to sexua...

    Authors: Bénédicte M. Lefèvre, Diane Catté, Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo and Michael Lang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:23

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The mammalian testis is an important male exocrine gland and spermatozoa-producing organ that usually lies in extra-abdominal scrotums to provide a cooler environment for spermatogenesis and sperm storage. Tes...

    Authors: Simin Chai, Ran Tian, Juanjuan Bi, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang and Wenhua Ren

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Ciliated protists, a huge assemblage of unicellular eukaryotes, are extremely diverse and play important ecological roles in most habitats where there is sufficient moisture for their survivals. Even though th...

    Authors: Jiyang Ma, Yan Zhao, Tengyue Zhang, Chen Shao, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid and Weibo Song

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:21

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. The developmental fates of offspring have the potential to be influenced by the identity of their care-givers and by the nature of the care that they receive. In animals that exhibit both parental and allopare...

    Authors: Claudinéia P. Costa, Kaleigh Fisher, Blanca M. Guillén, Naoki Yamanaka, Guy Bloch and S. Hollis Woodard

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:20

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Rearrangement is an important topic in the research of amphibian mitochondrial genomes ("mitogenomes" hereafter), whose causes and mechanisms remain enigmatic. Globally examining mitogenome rearrangements and ...

    Authors: Jifeng Zhang, Guopen Miao, Shunjie Hu, Qi Sun, Hengwu Ding, Zhicheng Ji, Pen Guo, Shoubao Yan, Chengrun Wang, Xianzhao Kan and Liuwang Nie

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Strongyllodes variegatus (Fairmaire) is a major insect pest of oilseed rape in China. Despite its economic importance, the contribution of its population genetics in the development of any suitable protection con...

    Authors: Hai-Xia Zhan, Zhong-Ping Hao, Rui Tang, Li-Ni Zhu, Jing-Jiang Zhou and Shu-Min Hou

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:18

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Invasive species are increasingly driving biodiversity decline, and knowledge of colonization dynamics, including both drivers and dispersal modes, are important to prevent future invasions. The bee species Megac...

    Authors: Julia Lanner, Fabian Gstöttenmayer, Manuel Curto, Benoît Geslin, Katharina Huchler, Michael C. Orr, Bärbel Pachinger, Claudio Sedivy and Harald Meimberg

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:17

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:30

  39. One of the dangers of global climate change to wildlife is distorting sex ratios by temperature-induced sex reversals in populations where sex determination is not exclusively genetic, potentially leading to p...

    Authors: Edina Nemesházi, Szilvia Kövér and Veronika Bókony

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:16

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. How land use shapes biodiversity and functional trait composition of animal communities is an important question and frequently addressed. Land-use intensification is associated with changes in abiotic and bio...

    Authors: Katja Wehner, Carsten Renker, Nadja K. Simons, Wolfgang W. Weisser and Nico Blüthgen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:15

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Exploring hybrid zone dynamics at different spatial scales allows for better understanding of local factors that influence hybrid zone structure. In this study, we tested hypotheses about drivers of introgress...

    Authors: Logan M. Maxwell, Jennifer Walsh, Brian J. Olsen and Adrienne I. Kovach

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. The domestication of tree shrews represents an important advance in the development of standardized laboratory animals. Little is known regarding the miRNA changes that accompany the transformation of wild tre...

    Authors: Caixia Lu, Mingxue Li, Xiaomei Sun, Na Li, Wenguang Wang, Pinfen Tong and Jiejie Dai

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Pyrenoids are protein microcompartments composed mainly of Rubisco that are localized in the chloroplasts of many photosynthetic organisms. Pyrenoids contribute to the CO2-concentrating mechanism. This organelle ...

    Authors: Ryo Matsuzaki, Shigekatsu Suzuki, Haruyo Yamaguchi, Masanobu Kawachi, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki Mori and Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:11

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Nick Bos, Leandro Guimaraes, Romen Palenzuela, Justinn Renelies-Hamilton, Lorrie Maccario, Simon Kolotchèlèma Silue, N.’golo Abdoulaye Koné and Michael Poulsen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:10

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2020 20:163

  45. The earliest records in Britain for the western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) date from the Late Bronze Age. The arrival of this commensal species in Britain is thought to be related to human tra...

    Authors: Oxala García-Rodríguez, Emilie A. Hardouin, Ellen Hambleton, Jonathan Monteith, Clare Randall, Martin B. Richards, Ceiridwen J. Edwards and John R. Stewart

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. The Scolopacidae family (Suborder Scolopaci, Charadriiformes) is composed of sandpipers and snipes; these birds are long-distance migrants that show great diversity in their behavior and habitat use. Cytogenet...

    Authors: Melquizedec Luiz Silva Pinheiro, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas, Cristovam Guerreiro Diniz, Patricia Caroline Mary O´Brien, Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith, Fengtang Yang and Julio Cesar Pieczarka

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:8

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), four species of parrotfishes with complex phylogeographic histories co-occur in sympatry on rocky reefs from Baja California to Ecuador: Scarus compressus, S. ghobban, S. pe...

    Authors: David B. Carlon, D. Ross Robertson, Robert L. Barron, John Howard Choat, David J. Anderson, Sonja A. Schwartz and Carlos A. Sánchez-Ortiz

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Heterobranchia is a diverse clade of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial gastropod molluscs. It includes such disparate taxa as nudibranchs, sea hares, bubble snails, pulmonate land snails and slugs, and a num...

    Authors: Rebecca M. Varney, Bastian Brenzinger, Manuel António E. Malaquias, Christopher P. Meyer, Michael Schrödl and Kevin M. Kocot

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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