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  1. The boreal forest is one of the largest biomes on earth, supporting thousands of species. The global climate fluctuations in the Quaternary, especially the ice ages, had a significant influence on the distribu...

    Authors: Kai Song, Bin Gao, Peter Halvarsson, Yun Fang, Siegfried Klaus, Ying-Xin Jiang, Jon E. Swenson, Yue-Hua Sun and Jacob Höglund

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:194

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Agroforestry is a production system combining trees with crops or livestock. It has the potential to increase biodiversity in relation to single-use systems, such as pastures or cropland, by providing a higher...

    Authors: Anne-Christine Mupepele, Matteo Keller and Carsten F. Dormann

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. The walnut family (Juglandaceae) contains commercially important woody trees commonly called walnut, wingnut, pecan and hickory. Phylogenetic relationships and diversification within the Juglandaceae are class...

    Authors: Huijuan Zhou, Yiheng Hu, Aziz Ebrahimi, Peiliang Liu, Keith Woeste, Peng Zhao and Shuoxin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. In parasitism arm race processes and red queen dynamics between host and parasites reciprocally mold many aspects of their genetics and evolution. We performed a parallel assessment of population genetics and ...

    Authors: Brenda Solórzano-García, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León and Daniel Piñero

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research

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  5. The ‘genetic diversity’ hypothesis posits that polyandry evolved as a mechanism to increase genetic diversity within broods. One extension of this hypothesis is the ‘genetic diversity for disease resistance’ h...

    Authors: D. M. Soper, A. K. E. Ekroth and M. J. F. Martins

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research

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  6. Industrial wastewater is a human health hazard upon exposure. Aquatic organisms in contaminated wastewater may accumulate the toxic elements with time. Human population living in informal settlements in Nairob...

    Authors: Geoffrey Kariuki Kinuthia, Veronica Ngure and Luna Kamau

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Individuals can estimate risk by integrating prenatal with postnatal and personal information, but the relative importance of different information sources during the transgenerational response is unclear. The...

    Authors: Denis Meuthen, Maud C. O. Ferrari and Douglas P. Chivers

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research

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  8. Sympatric speciation along ecological gradients has been studied repeatedly, in particular in freshwater fishes. Rapid post-glacial ecological divergence has resulted in numerous endemic species or ecologicall...

    Authors: Thomas Mehner, Stefan Palm, Bo Delling, Juha Karjalainen, Jolanta Kiełpińska, Asja Vogt and Jörg Freyhof

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research

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  9. Natural selection can act on multiple genes in the same pathway, leading to polygenic adaptation. For example, adaptive changes were found to down-regulate six genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis—an esse...

    Authors: Alexander F. Kern, Grace Xiaolu Yang, Neil M. Khosla, Roy Moh Lik Ang, Michael P. Snyder and Hunter B. Fraser

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research

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  10. Alligator lizards (Gerrhonotinae) are a well-known group of extant North American lizard. Although many fossils were previously referred to Gerrhonotinae, most of those fossils are isolated and fragmentary cra...

    Authors: Simon G. Scarpetta, David T. Ledesma and Christopher J. Bell

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research

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  11. The West Nile virus is a highly contagious agent for a wide range of hosts. Its spread in the Mediterranean region raises several questions about its origin and the risk factors underlying the virus’s dispersal.

    Authors: Haythem Srihi, Noureddine Chatti, Manel Ben Mhadheb, Jawhar Gharbi and Nabil Abid

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:183

    Content type: Research

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  12. Chemical communication is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of a wide range of mammals. In dogs and other carnivores, anal sac glands are thought to convey information to conspecifics by secreting...

    Authors: Sunita Janssenswillen, Kim Roelants, Sebastien Carpentier, Hilde de Rooster, Mieke Metzemaekers, Bram Vanschoenwinkel, Paul Proost and Franky Bossuyt

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Evolutionary processes can cause strong spatial genetic signatures, such as local loss of genetic diversity, or conflicting histories from mitochondrial versus nuclear markers. Investigating these genetic patt...

    Authors: Junchen Deng, Giacomo Assandri, Pallavi Chauhan, Ryo Futahashi, Andrea Galimberti, Bengt Hansson, Lesley T. Lancaster, Yuma Takahashi, Erik I. Svensson and Anne Duplouy

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:181

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Mangroves are tropical and subtropical intertidal forests colonising sheltered coasts across the world. They host a unique faunal community, dominated by brachyuran crabs and gastropods. These invertebrates st...

    Authors: Henrique Bravo, Christine L. Y. Cheng, Alessio Iannucci, Chiara Natali, Aline Quadros, Martin Rhodes, Matthew M. L. Yip, Stefano Cannicci and Sara Fratini

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Evolution of reproductive isolation is an important process, generating biodiversity and driving speciation. To better understand this process, it is necessary to investigate factors underlying reproductive is...

    Authors: Yukie Sato, Satoshi Fujiwara, Martijn Egas, Tomoko Matsuda and Tetsuo Gotoh

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Homo sapiens have experienced admixture many times in the last few thousand years. To examine how admixture affects local adaptation, we investigated genomes of modern Polynesians, who are shaped through admixtur...

    Authors: Mariko Isshiki, Izumi Naka, Ryosuke Kimura, Nao Nishida, Takuro Furusawa, Kazumi Natsuhara, Taro Yamauchi, Minato Nakazawa, Takafumi Ishida, Tsukasa Inaoka, Yasuhiro Matsumura, Ryutaro Ohtsuka and Jun Ohashi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The potential of artificial selection to dramatically impact phenotypic diversity is well known. Large-scale morphological changes in domestic species, emerging over short timescales, offer an accelerated pers...

    Authors: Pauline Hanot, Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan, Claude Guintard, Ashleigh Haruda, Enkhbayar Mijiddorj, Renate Schafberg and William Taylor

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research

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  18. Approximately 1000 protein encoding genes common for vertebrates are still unannotated in avian genomes. Are these genes evolutionary lost or are they not yet found for technical reasons? Using genome landscap...

    Authors: R. Huttener, L. Thorrez, T. In’t Veld, M. Granvik, L. Van Lommel, E. Waelkens, R. Derua, K. Lemaire, L. Goyvaerts, S. De Coster, J. Buyse and F. Schuit

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Ambrosia trifida are globally distributed harmful and invasive weeds. High density clusters play an important role in their invasion. For these two species, the early settled populatio...

    Authors: Wenxuan Zhao, Tong Liu, Yan Liu, Hanyue Wang, Ruili Wang, Qianqian Ma, Hegan Dong and Xuyi Bi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research

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  20. Plant communities of fragmented agricultural landscapes, are subject to patch isolation and scale-dependent effects. Variation in configuration, composition, and distance from one another affect biological pro...

    Authors: Michael McLeish, Adrián Peláez, Israel Pagán, Rosario Gavilán, Aurora Fraile and Fernando García-Arenal

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  21. One of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions may be alteration of the soil microbial community, which may cause changes to the diversity, richness and function of these communities. In order to expl...

    Authors: Nardi Torres, Ileana Herrera, Laurie Fajardo and Ramiro O. Bustamante

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The host specificity and host range of the dry bean beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), a seed predator of beans, is poorly known. In addition, the female oviposition preferen...

    Authors: Árpád Szentesi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:171

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Studying the development of fitness related traits in hybrids from populations diverging in sympatry is a fundamental approach to understand the processes of speciation. However, such traits are often affected...

    Authors: Quentin J.-B. Horta-Lacueva, Sigurður S. Snorrason, Michael B. Morrissey, Camille A.-L. Leblanc and Kalina H. Kapralova

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research

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  24. The dominant Gasterophilus species in the desert steppe (Xinjiang, China) Gasterophilus pecorum poses a serious threat to the reintroduced Przewalski’s horses. We investigated the distribution pattern of G. pecor...

    Authors: Heqing Huang, Ke Zhang, Changliang Shao, Chen Wang, Make Ente, Zhenbiao Wang, Dong Zhang and Kai Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Chinese grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sinensis) is an important species widely distributed throughout China, which is ecologically relevant and possesses ornamental and economic value. These organisms have experienc...

    Authors: Yingying Zhao, Xiaochen Zhu, Ye Jiang, Zhi Li, Xin Li, Weibin Xu, Hua Wei, Yingdong Li and Xiaodong Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Sharks and rays are some of the most threatened marine taxa due to the high levels of bycatch and significant demand for meat and fin-related products in many Asian communities. At least 25% of shark and ray s...

    Authors: Yin Cheong Aden Ip, Jia Jin Marc Chang, Kelvin K. P. Lim, Zeehan Jaafar, Benjamin J. Wainwright and Danwei Huang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Domestication alters several phenotypic, neurological, and physiological traits in domestic animals compared to those in their wild ancestors. Domestic ducks originated from mallards, and some studies have sho...

    Authors: Tao Zhu, Xin Qi, Yu Chen, Liang Wang, Xueze Lv, Weifang Yang, Jianwei Zhang, Kaiyang Li, Zhonghua Ning, Zhihua Jiang and Lujiang Qu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Many male animals donate nutritive materials during courtship or mating to their female mates. Donation of large-sized gifts, though costly to prepare, can result in increased sperm transfer during mating and ...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Kamimura, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Charles Lienhard, Rodrigo L. Ferreira and Jun Abe

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. For specialised pollinators, the synchrony of plant and pollinator life history is critical to the persistence of pollinator populations. This is even more critical in nursery pollination, where pollinators ar...

    Authors: Jonathan T. D. Finch, Sally A. Power, Justin A. Welbergen and James M. Cook

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. The ancestral presence of epithelia in Metazoa is no longer debated. Porifera seem to be one of the best candidates to be the sister group to all other Metazoa. This makes them a key taxon to explore cell-adhe...

    Authors: Amélie Vernale, Maria Mandela Prünster, Fabio Marchianò, Henry Debost, Nicolas Brouilly, Caroline Rocher, Dominique Massey-Harroche, Emmanuelle Renard, André Le Bivic, Bianca H. Habermann and Carole Borchiellini

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The inaugural BMC Ecology and Evolution image competition attracted entries from talented ecologists and evolutionary biologists worldwide. Together, these photos beautifully capture biodiversity, how it arose an...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Harman, Alison L. Cuff, Josef Settele, Luke M. Jacobus, David A. Liberles and Arne Traulsen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:157

    Content type: Editorial

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:174

  32. The vast variation observed in genital morphology is a longstanding puzzle in evolutionary biology. Studies showing that the morphology of the mammalian baculum (penis bone) can covary with a male’s paternity ...

    Authors: Lennart Winkler, Anna K. Lindholm, Steven A. Ramm and Andreas Sutter

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research

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  33. Synthetic gene drive technologies aim to spread transgenic constructs into wild populations even when they impose organismal fitness disadvantages. The extraordinary diversity of plausible drive mechanisms and...

    Authors: Prateek Verma, R. Guy Reeves and Chaitanya S. Gokhale

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:156

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:195

  34. Conserved syntenic gene complexes are rare in Arthropods and likely only retained due to functional constraint. Numerous sHSPs have been identified in the genomes of insects, some of which are located clustere...

    Authors: Megan Leask, Mackenzie Lovegrove, Abigail Walker, Elizabeth Duncan and Peter Dearden

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Different types of proteins diverge at vastly different rates. Moreover, the same type of protein has been observed to evolve with different rates in different phylogenetic lineages. In the present study we me...

    Authors: Raf Huttener, Lieven Thorrez, Thomas in‘t Veld, Barney Potter, Guy Baele, Mikaela Granvik, Leentje Van Lommel and Frans Schuit

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. In recent years, the average abundance function has attracted much attention as it reflects the degree of cooperation in the population. Then it is significant to analyse how average abundance functions can be...

    Authors: Ke Xia

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Crypsis by background-matching is a critical form of anti-predator defence for animals exposed to visual predators, but achieving effective camouflage in patchy and variable natural environments is not straigh...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Lina María Arenas, Anna E. Hughes, Eric Liggins and Martin Stevens

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Understanding drivers of animal biodiversity has been a longstanding aim in evolutionary biology. Insects and fishes represent the largest lineages of invertebrates and vertebrates respectively, and consequent...

    Authors: Kevin Arbuckle and Richard J. Harris

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Environmental conditions on Earth are repeated in non-random patterns that often coincide with species from different regions and time periods having consistent combinations of morphological, physiological and...

    Authors: Nicolás Pelegrin, Kirk O. Winemiller, Laurie J. Vitt, Daniel B. Fitzgerald and Eric R. Pianka

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. hes genes are chordate homologs of Drosophila genes, hairy and enhancer of split, which encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressor with a WRPW motif. Various developmental functions of hes g...

    Authors: Aya Kuretani, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Masanori Taira and Tatsuo Michiue

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Malte Petersen, David Armisén, Richard A. Gibbs, Lars Hering, Abderrahman Khila, Georg Mayer, Stephen Richards, Oliver Niehuis and Bernhard Misof

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:146

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2019 19:11

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