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  1. The functioning of ecosystems is highly variable through space and time. Climatic and edaphic factors are forcing ecological communities to converge, whereas the diversity of plant assemblages dampens these ef...

    Authors: Guillaume Rheault, Esther Lévesque and Raphaël Proulx
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:91
  2. The pace of aging varies considerably in nature. The best-known explanation of the evolution of specific rates of aging is the Williams’ hypothesis suggesting that the aging rate should correlate with the leve...

    Authors: Peter Lenart, Julie Bienertová-Vašků and Luděk Berec
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:87
  3. Skulls serve many functions and as a result, are subject to many different evolutionary pressures. In squamates, many fossorial species occupy a unique region of skull morphospace, showing convergence across f...

    Authors: Natasha Stepanova and Aaron M. Bauer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:86
  4. An ecological approach for managing biological invasions in agroecosystems is the selection of alternative crop species to manage the infestation of invasive alien plants through competition. In the current st...

    Authors: Shicai Shen, Gaofeng Xu, Diyu Li, Shaosong Yang, Guimei Jin, Shufang Liu, David Roy Clements, Aidong Chen, Jia Rao, Lila Wen, Qiong Tao, Shuiying Zhang, Jiazhen Yang and Fudou Zhang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:85
  5. Plant pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1) proteins belong to the CAP superfamily and have been characterized as markers of induced defense against pathogens. Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri are hemi...

    Authors: Adrielle A. Vasconcelos, Juliana José, Paulo M. Tokimatu, Antonio P. Camargo, Paulo J. P. L. Teixeira, Daniela P. T. Thomazella, Paula F. V. do Prado, Gabriel L. Fiorin, Juliana L. Costa, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo F. Carazzolle, Gonçalo A. G. Pereira and Renata M. Baroni
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:84
  6. Population size and densities are key parameters in both fundamental and applied ecology, as they affect population resilience to density-dependent processes, habitat changes and stochastic events. Efficient m...

    Authors: Mickaël Jacquier, Jean-Michel Vandel, François Léger, Jeanne Duhayer, Sylvia Pardonnet, Ludovic Say, Sébastien Devillard and Sandrine Ruette
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:82
  7. Vision is a crucial sense for the evolutionary success of many animal groups. Here we explore the diversity of visual pigments (opsins) in the transcriptomes of amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda) and conclude th...

    Authors: Polina Drozdova, Alena Kizenko, Alexandra Saranchina, Anton Gurkov, Maria Firulyova, Ekaterina Govorukhina and Maxim Timofeyev
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:81
  8. In holometabolous insects, environmental factors experienced in pre-imaginal life stages affect the life-history traits within that stage and can also influence subsequent life stages. Here, I assessed toleran...

    Authors: Steve B. S. Baleba
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:78
  9. In temperate regions many small mammals including bats hibernate during winter. During hibernation these small mammals occasionally wake up (arouse) to restore electrolyte and water balance. However, field dat...

    Authors: Heungjin Ryu, Kodzue Kinoshita, Sungbae Joo and Sun-Sook Kim
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:77
  10. There has been a rapid increase in the brain size relative to body size during mammalian evolutionary history. In particular, the enlarged and globular brain is the most distinctive anatomical feature of moder...

    Authors: Nashaiman Pervaiz, Hongen Kang, Yiming Bao and Amir Ali Abbasi
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:76
  11. Despite progress in genomic analysis of spiders, their chromosome evolution is not satisfactorily understood. Most information on spider chromosomes concerns the most diversified clade, entelegyne araneomorphs...

    Authors: Ivalú M. Ávila Herrera, Jiří Král, Markéta Pastuchová, Martin Forman, Jana Musilová, Tereza Kořínková, František Šťáhlavský, Magda Zrzavá, Petr Nguyen, Pavel Just, Charles R. Haddad, Matyáš Hiřman, Martina Koubová, David Sadílek and Bernhard A. Huber
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:75

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:93

  12. During recognition process, multiple parameters of the encountered stimulus may play a role. Previous studies with wild birds identified the importance of several salient features (e.g., eyes, beak, prominent ...

    Authors: Kateřina Antonová, Petr Veselý and Roman Fuchs
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:74
  13. Refaunation/rewilding by large ungulates represents a cost-efficient approach to managing natural biotopes and may be particularly useful for areas whose biodiversity depends on disturbance dynamics and is imp...

    Authors: Martin Konvička, David Ričl, Veronika Vodičková, Jiří Beneš and Miloslav Jirků
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:73
  14. Although almost all extant spider species live in terrestrial environments, a few species live fully submerged in freshwater or seawater. The intertidal spiders (genus Desis) built silk nests within coral crevice...

    Authors: Fan Li, Yunyun Lv, Zhengyong Wen, Chao Bian, Xinhui Zhang, Shengtao Guo, Qiong Shi and Daiqin Li
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:72
  15. Cultivated tea is one of the most important economic and ecological trees distributed worldwide. Cultivated tea suffer from long-term targeted selection of traits and overexploitation of habitats by human bein...

    Authors: Jiao Peng, Yunlin Zhao, Meng Dong, Shiquan Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Xiaofen Zhong and Zhenggang Xu
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:71
  16. The common name of the Flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) usually relates them with organisms feeding on decomposing organic matter, although the biology of one of the largest radiations among insects also includes ...

    Authors: Eliana Buenaventura
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:70
  17. Although the immediate consequences of biological invasions on ecosystems and conservation have been widely studied, the long-term effects remain unclear. Invaders can either cause the extinction of native spe...

    Authors: Carlos García, Josefina G. Campoy and Rubén Retuerto
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:69
  18. New Zealand’s diplodactylid geckos exhibit high species-level diversity, largely independent of discernible osteological changes. Consequently, systematic affinities of isolated skeletal elements (fossils) are...

    Authors: Lachie Scarsbrook, Emma Sherratt, Rodney A. Hitchmough and Nicolas J. Rawlence
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:67
  19. Color vision and phototactic behavior based on opsins are important for the fitness of insects because of their roles in foraging and mate choice. Related topics, including the duplication and loss of opsin ge...

    Authors: Pengjun Xu, Bin Lu, Jiangtao Chao, Robert Holdbrook, Gemei Liang and Yanhui Lu
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:66
  20. The Type I interferon response is an important first-line defense against viruses. In turn, viruses antagonize (i.e., degrade, mis-localize, etc.) many proteins in interferon pathways. Thus, hosts and viruses ...

    Authors: Elena N. Judd, Alison R. Gilchrist, Nicholas R. Meyerson and Sara L. Sawyer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:65
  21. Geographic differences in floral size sometimes reflect geographic differences in pollinator size. However, we know little about whether this floral size specialization to the regional pollinator size occurred...

    Authors: Tsubasa Toji, Natsumi Ishimoto, Shin Egawa, Yuta Nakase, Mitsuru Hattori and Takao Itino
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:64
  22. Identifying ecologically significant phenotypic traits and the genomic mechanisms that underly them are crucial steps in understanding traits associated with population divergence. We used genome-wide data to ...

    Authors: Jared A. Grummer, Michael C. Whitlock, Patricia M. Schulte and Eric B. Taylor
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:63
  23. Pathogens are key components in natural and agricultural plant systems. There is evidence of evolutionary changes in disease susceptibility as a consequence of climate change, but we know little about the unde...

    Authors: Niamh B. O’Hara, Steven J. Franks, Nolan C. Kane, Silas Tittes and Joshua S. Rest
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:61
  24. Lemurs once rivalled the diversity of rest of the primate order despite thier confinement to the island of Madagascar. We test the adaptive radiation model of Malagasy lemur diversity using a novel combinatio...

    Authors: Ethan L. Fulwood, Shan Shan, Julia M. Winchester, Henry Kirveslahti, Robert Ravier, Shahar Kovalsky, Ingrid Daubechies and Doug M. Boyer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:60
  25. The duplication of genes is one of the main genetic mechanisms that led to the gain in complexity of biological tissue. Although the implication of duplicated gene expression in brain evolution was extensively...

    Authors: Solène Brohard-Julien, Vincent Frouin, Vincent Meyer, Smahane Chalabi, Jean-François Deleuze, Edith Le Floch and Christophe Battail
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:59
  26. Pelvic brooding is a form of uni-parental care, and likely evolved in parallel in two lineages of Sulawesi ricefishes. Contrary to all other ricefishes, females of pelvic brooding species do not deposit eggs a...

    Authors: Tobias Spanke, Leon Hilgers, Benjamin Wipfler, Jana M. Flury, Arne W. Nolte, Ilham V. Utama, Bernhard Misof, Fabian Herder and Julia Schwarzer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:57
  27. Climate heterogeneity not only indirectly shapes the genetic structures of plant populations, but also drives adaptive divergence by impacting demographic dynamics. The variable localized climates and topograp...

    Authors: Hang Ye, Zhi Wang, Huimin Hou, Jiahui Wu, Yue Gao, Wei Han, Wenming Ru, Genlou Sun and Yiling Wang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:56
  28. Why females engage in social polygyny remains an unresolved question in species where the resources provided by males maximize female fitness. In these systems, the ability of males to access several females, ...

    Authors: David Canal, Lotte Schlicht, Simone Santoro, Carlos Camacho, Jesús Martínez-Padilla and Jaime Potti
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:55
  29. Placentation has evolved multiple times among both chordates and invertebrates. Although they are structurally less complex, invertebrate placentae are much more diverse in their origin, development and positi...

    Authors: U. A. Nekliudova, T. F. Schwaha, O. N. Kotenko, D. Gruber, N. Cyran and A. N. Ostrovsky
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:54
  30. Avidins are biotin-binding proteins commonly found in the vertebrate eggs. In addition to streptavidin from Streptomyces avidinii, a growing number of avidins have been characterized from divergent bacterial spec...

    Authors: Olli H. Laitinen, Tanja P. Kuusela, Sampo Kukkurainen, Anssi Nurminen, Aki Sinkkonen and Vesa P. Hytönen
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:53
  31. Asexually reproducing populations of single cells evolve through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Environmental conditions in which the evolution takes place define the emergent fitness landscap...

    Authors: Bhaskar Kumawat and Ramray Bhat
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:52
  32. The New Guinean archipelago has been shaped by millions of years of plate tectonic activity combined with long-term fluctuations in climate and sea level. These processes combined with New Guinea’s location at...

    Authors: Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Lloyd T. White, Helena Shaverdo, Athena Lam, Suriani Surbakti, Rawati Panjaitan, Bob Sumoked, Thomas von Rintelen, Katayo Sagata and Michael Balke
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:51
  33. Comparative phylogeographic studies on rainforest species that are widespread in Central Africa often reveal genetic discontinuities within and between biogeographic regions, indicating (historical) barriers t...

    Authors: Samuel Vanden Abeele, Steven B. Janssens, Rosalía Piñeiro and Olivier J. Hardy
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:50
  34. Identifying factors shaping population genetic structure across continuous landscapes in the context of biogeographic boundaries for lineage diversification has been a challenging goal. The red muntjacs cover ...

    Authors: Bhim Singh, Ajit Kumar, Virendra Prasad Uniyal and Sandeep Kumar Gupta
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:49
  35. A striking aspect of evolution is that it often converges on similar trajectories. Evolutionary convergence can occur in deep time or over short time scales, and is associated with the imposition of similar se...

    Authors: Cory A. Berger, Michael S. Brewer, Nobuaki Kono, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Kazuharu Arakawa, Susan R. Kennedy, Hannah M. Wood, Seira A. Adams and Rosemary G. Gillespie
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:48
  36. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in insects. The certain specialized structures may be used as weapons in male–male combats or as ornaments to enhance mating opportunities.

    Authors: Yan-jie Zhang, Peter J. M. Shih, Jun-you Wang, Maria E. McNamara, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren and Tai-ping Gao
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:47
  37. Nbp35-like proteins (Nbp35, Cfd1, HCF101, Ind1, and AbpC) are P-loop NTPases that serve as components of iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) assembly machineries. In eukaryotes, Ind1 is present in mitochondria, and its ...

    Authors: Jan Pyrih, Vojtěch Žárský, Justin D. Fellows, Christopher Grosche, Dorota Wloga, Boris Striepen, Uwe G. Maier and Jan Tachezy
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:46
  38. Natural model systems are indispensable for exploring adaptations in response to environmental pressures. Sinocyclocheilus of China, the most diverse cavefish clade in the world (75 species), provide unique oppor...

    Authors: Ting-Ru Mao, Ye-Wei Liu, Madhava Meegaskumbura, Jian Yang, Gajaba Ellepola, Gayani Senevirathne, Cheng-Hai Fu, Joshua B. Gross and Marcio R. Pie
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:45
  39. Black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is a viviparous teleost. We proposed that the rockfish ovarian wall had a similar function to the uterus of mammals previously. In the present study, the well-developed vascul...

    Authors: Jingjing Niu, Weihao Song, Rui Li, Haiyang Yu, Jian Guan, Jie Qi and Yan He
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:44
  40. Phylogenomic approaches have great power to reconstruct evolutionary histories, however they rely on multi-step processes in which each stage has the potential to affect the accuracy of the final result. Many ...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Spillane, Troy M. LaPolice, Matthew D. MacManes and David C. Plachetzki
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:43
  41. The bearded vulture is sparsely distributed across a wide geographic range that extends over three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia). Restriction to high-altitude mountainous habitats, low breeding rates, l...

    Authors: Melanie Streicher, Sonja Krüger, Franziska Loercher and Sandi Willows-Munro
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:42
  42. Cherleria (Caryophyllaceae) is a circumboreal genus that also occurs in the high mountains of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we focus on a clade that diversified in the European High Mountains, which was...

    Authors: Abigail J. Moore, Jennifer A. Messick and Joachim W. Kadereit
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:40
  43. Recovering the historical patterns of selection acting on a protein coding sequence is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Mutation-selection models address this problem by explicitly modelling fixation rate...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ritchie, Tristan L. Stark and David A. Liberles
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:39

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