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  1. Placodontia is a Triassic sauropterygian reptile group characterized by flat and enlarged crushing teeth adapted to a durophagous diet. The enigmatic placodont Henodus chelyops has numerous autapomorphic characte...

    Authors: Yannick Pommery, Torsten M. Scheyer, James M. Neenan, Tobias Reich, Vincent Fernandez, Dennis F. A. E. Voeten, Adrian S. Losko and Ingmar Werneburg
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:136
  2. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, one of the major causes of worldwide amphibian biodiversity loss. Many amphibians exhibit skin-based chemical defences, which may pl...

    Authors: János Ujszegi, Krisztina Ludányi, Ágnes M. Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, László Drahos, Tamás Drexler, Márk Z. Németh, Judit Vörös, Trenton W. J. Garner and Attila Hettyey
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:135
  3. Four ohnologous genes (sox1, sox2, sox3, and sox15) were generated by two rounds of whole-genome duplication in a vertebrate ancestor. In eutherian mammals, Sox1, Sox2, and Sox3 participate in central nervous sys...

    Authors: Yusaku Ogita, Kei Tamura, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Nobuhiko Takamatsu and Michihiko Ito
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:134
  4. Callitrichids comprise a diverse group of platyrrhine monkeys that are present across South and Central America. Their secondarily evolved small size and pointed claws allow them to cling to vertical trunks of...

    Authors: Léo Botton-Divet and John A. Nyakatura
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:132
  5. ApaH like phosphatases (ALPHs) originate from the bacterial ApaH protein and have been identified in all eukaryotic super-groups. Only two of these proteins have been functionally characterised. We have shown ...

    Authors: Paula Andrea Castañeda Londoño, Nicole Banholzer, Bridget Bannermann and Susanne Kramer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:131
  6. The orogeny of the eastern Mediterranean region has substantially affected ecological speciation patterns, particularly of mountain-dwelling species. Mountain vipers of the genus Montivipera are among the paramou...

    Authors: Mohsen Ahmadi, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Mohammad Kaboli, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mansoureh Malekian, Roozbeh Behrooz, Philippe Geniez, John Alroy and Niklaus E. Zimmermann
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:130
  7. Two coexisting species with similar ecological requirements avoid or reduce competition by changing the extent of their use of a given resource. Numerous coexistence mechanisms have been proposed, but species ...

    Authors: Elisa Torretta, Luca Riboldi, Elena Costa, Claudio Delfoco, Erica Frignani and Alberto Meriggi
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:129
  8. In the marine realm, dispersal ability is among the major factors shaping the distribution of species. In the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, the Azores Archipelago is home to a multitude of marine invertebrates whi...

    Authors: L. Baptista, H. Meimberg, S. P. Ávila, A. M. Santos and M. Curto
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:128
  9. The Chengjiang biota from southwest China (518-million-years old, early Cambrian) has yielded nearly 300 species, of which more than 80 species represent early chelicerates, crustaceans and relatives. The appl...

    Authors: Michel Schmidt, Yu Liu, Xianguang Hou, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Huijan Mai and Roland R. Melzer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:127
  10. Populations living in fragmented habitats may suffer from loss of genetic variation and reduced between-patch dispersal, which are processes that can result in genetic differentiation. This occurs frequently i...

    Authors: Nelli Rönkä, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Angela Pauliny, Robert L. Thomson, Kimmo Nuotio, Hannes Pehlak, Ole Thorup, Petteri Lehikoinen, Antti Rönkä, Donald Blomqvist, Kari Koivula and Laura Kvist
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:125
  11. Plankton are foundational to marine food webs and an important feature for characterizing ocean health. Recent developments in quantitative imaging devices provide in-flow high-throughput sampling from bulk vo...

    Authors: Liam MacNeil, Sergey Missan, Junliang Luo, Thomas Trappenberg and Julie LaRoche
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:123
  12. In Europe, golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been expanding their range out of the southern and southeastern Balkans towards central Europe continually since the 1960s. Here, we investigated the level of functio...

    Authors: Milomir Stefanović, Duško Ćirović, Neda Bogdanović, Felix Knauer, Miklós Heltai, László Szabó, József Lanszki, Chavdar Dinev Zhelev, Helmut Schaschl and Franz Suchentrunk
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:122
  13. Delimiting cryptic species in elasmobranchs is a major challenge in modern taxonomy due the lack of available phenotypic features. Employing stand-alone genetics in splitting a cryptic species may prove proble...

    Authors: Fahmi, Ian R. Tibbetts, Michael B. Bennett and Christine L. Dudgeon
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:121
  14. How various host–parasite combinations have been established is an important question in evolutionary biology. We have previously described two nematode species, Rhigonema naylae and Travassosinema claudiae, whic...

    Authors: Seiya Nagae, Kazuki Sato, Tsutomu Tanabe and Koichi Hasegawa
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:120
  15. Tracing the association between insect cold tolerance and latitudinally and locally varying environmental conditions, as well as key morphological traits and molecular mechanisms, is essential for understandin...

    Authors: Noora Poikela, Venera Tyukmaeva, Anneli Hoikkala and Maaria Kankare
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:117
  16. There has always been controversy over whether clonal plants have lower genetic diversity than plants that reproduce sexually. These conflicts could be attributed to the fact that few studies have taken into a...

    Authors: Rong Huang, Yu Wang, Kuan Li and Ying-Qiang Wang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:116
  17. The taxonomic classification of the suborder Tintinnina Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, a species-rich group of planktonic ciliated protistans with a characteristic lorica, has long been ambiguous largely due to the ...

    Authors: Rui Wang, Yang Bai, Tao Hu, Dapeng Xu, Toshikazu Suzuki and Xiaozhong Hu
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:115

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:158

  18. As flatfish, turbot undergo metamorphosis as part of their life cycle. In the larval stage, turbot live at the ocean surface, but after metamorphosis they move to deeper water and turn to benthic life. Thus, t...

    Authors: Yunong Wang, Li Zhou, Lele Wu, Changbin Song, Xiaona Ma, Shihong Xu, Tengfei Du, Xian Li and Jun Li
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:114
  19. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) is among the economically most important freshwater fish species in East Africa, and a major source of protein for local consumption. Human induced translocati...

    Authors: Genanaw Tesfaye, Manuel Curto, Paul Meulenbroek, Gernot K. Englmaier, Papius Dias Tibihika, Esayas Alemayehu, Abebe Getahun and Harald Meimberg
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:113
  20. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: James C. Lamsdell, Gerald O. Gunderson and Ronald C. Meyer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:112

    The original article was published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2019 19:8

  21. In contrast to the explosive increase of a population following biological invasion, natural dispersal, i.e., when a population disperses from its original range into a new range, is a passive process that is ...

    Authors: Liqun Yu, Shuai Zhao, Fanbing Meng, Yanshuang Shi and Chunzhu Xu
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:111
  22. Mutation accumulation (MA) has profound ecological and evolutionary consequences. One example is that accumulation of conditionally neutral mutations leads to fitness trade-offs among heterogenous habitats whi...

    Authors: Xiao-Lin Chu and Quan-Guo Zhang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:109
  23. The great diversity in plant genome size and chromosome number is partly due to polyploidization (i.e. genome doubling events). The differences in genome size and chromosome number among diploid plant species ...

    Authors: J. S. Eriksson, C. D. Bacon, D. J. Bennett, B. E. Pfeil, B. Oxelman and A. Antonelli
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:107
  24. Increasing drought induced by global climate changes is altering the structure and function of grassland ecosystems. However, there is a lack of understanding of how drought affects the trade-off of above- and...

    Authors: Xiangyun Li, Xiaoan Zuo, Ping Yue, Xueyong Zhao, Ya Hu, Xinxin Guo, Aixia Guo, Chong Xu and Qiang Yu
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:106
  25. Relapsing fever (RF) borreliae are arthropod-borne spirochetes and some of them cause human diseases, which are characterized by relapsing or recurring episodes of fever. Recently, it has been classified into ...

    Authors: Ranna Nakao, Kentaro Kasama, Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Hiroki Kawabata, Atsushi Toyoda, Tetsuya Hayashi, Ai Takano and Ken Maeda
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:105
  26. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama and final closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) provides an independent calibration point for examining the rate of DNA substitutions. This vicariant event has bee...

    Authors: Katherine Silliman, Jane L. Indorf, Nancy Knowlton, William E. Browne and Carla Hurt
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:104
  27. The Styracaceae are a woody, dicotyledonous family containing 12 genera and an estimated 160 species. Recent studies have shown that Styrax and Sinojackia are monophyletic, Alniphyllum and Bruinsmia cluster into ...

    Authors: Xiu-Lian Cai, Jacob B. Landis, Hong-Xin Wang, Jian-Hua Wang, Zhi-Xin Zhu and Hua-Feng Wang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:103
  28. The Euphorbia hypothesis on the origin of fairy circles (FCs) in Namibia dates back to 1979. It proposes that the remains of decaying shrubs would induce an allelopathic interaction with the grasses and thereb...

    Authors: Stephan Getzin, Ailly Nambwandja, Sönke Holch and Kerstin Wiegand
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:102
  29. Elongated rostra play an important role in the egg-laying of weevils, and its emergence plays a key role in the adaptive radiation of weevils. Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus Motschulsky and E. brandti Harold co-...

    Authors: Ganyu Zhang, Wenjuan Guo, Xiaoyi Wang, Qian Wang, Jin Cui and Junbao Wen
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:101
  30. Animal mitochondria play a central role in energy production in the cells through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Recent studies of selection on different mitochondrial OXPHOS genes have reveal...

    Authors: Asma Awadi, Hichem Ben Slimen, Helmut Schaschl, Felix Knauer and Franz Suchentrunk
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:100
  31. The impact of genetic interaction networks on evolution is a fundamental issue. Previous studies have demonstrated that the topology of the network is determined by the properties of the cellular machinery. Fu...

    Authors: Joanna Klim, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Marek Skoneczny, Adrianna Skoneczna, Anna Kurlandzka and Szymon Kaczanowski
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:99
  32. The stem-group of Ephemeroptera is phylogenetically important for understanding key steps in evolutionary history of early pterygote insects. However, these taxa have been mostly studied from the taxonomy poin...

    Authors: Pavel Sroka, Roman J. Godunko, Nina D. Sinitshenkova and Jakub Prokop
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:97
  33. The European population of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) is declining. It is therefore essential to optimise conservation initiatives such as the rehabilitation of sick, injured and orphaned hedgehogs. Wild ani...

    Authors: Sophie Lund Rasmussen, Otto Kalliokoski, Torben Dabelsteen and Klas Abelson
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:96
  34. Wolbachia is an endosymbiont common to most invertebrates, which can have significant evolutionary implications for its host species by acting as a barrier to gene flow. Despite the importance of Wolbachia, still...

    Authors: Kay Lucek, Selim Bouaouina, Amanda Jospin, Andrea Grill and Jurriaan M. de Vos
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:95
  35. Despite a longstanding interest in understanding how animals adapt to environments with limited nutrients, we have incomplete knowledge of the genetic basis of metabolic evolution. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mex...

    Authors: Misty R. Riddle, Ariel Aspiras, Fleur Damen, Suzanne McGaugh, Julius A. Tabin and Clifford J. Tabin
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:94
  36. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ivalú M. Ávila Herrera, Jiří Král, Markéta Pastuchová, Martin Forman, Jana Musilová, Tereza Kořínková, František Šťáhlavský, Magda Zrzavá, Petr Nguyen, Pavel Just, Charles R. Haddad, Matyáš Hiřman, Martina Koubová, David Sadílek and Bernhard A. Huber
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:93

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:75

  37. Mitochondrial genes encode proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Variations in lifestyle and ecological niche can be directly reflected in metabolic performance. Subterranean rodents represent a good...

    Authors: Olga V. Bondareva, Nadezhda A. Potapova, Kirill A. Konovalov, Tatyana V. Petrova and Natalia I. Abramson
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:92
  38. The functioning of ecosystems is highly variable through space and time. Climatic and edaphic factors are forcing ecological communities to converge, whereas the diversity of plant assemblages dampens these ef...

    Authors: Guillaume Rheault, Esther Lévesque and Raphaël Proulx
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:91
  39. Spermatogenesis appears to be a relatively well-conserved process even among distantly related animal taxa such as invertebrates and vertebrates. Although Hymenopterans share many characteristics with other or...

    Authors: Charlotte Lécureuil, Sophie Fouchécourt, Rémi Eliautout, Vanessa Guérin, Kevin Hidalgo, Dorian Neutre, Géraldine Roux and Philippe Monget
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:90
  40. The speckled-pelage brush-furred rats (Lophuromys flavopunctatus group) have been difficult to define given conflicting genetic, morphological, and distributional records that combine to obscure meaningful accoun...

    Authors: Kenneth Otieno Onditi, Terrence C. Demos, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Zhong-Zheng Chen, Josef Bryja, Leonid A. Lavrenchenko, Simon Musila, Erik Verheyen, Frederik Van de Perre, Benjamin Dudu Akaibe, Noé U. de la Sancha and Xue-Long Jiang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:89
  41. The pace of aging varies considerably in nature. The best-known explanation of the evolution of specific rates of aging is the Williams’ hypothesis suggesting that the aging rate should correlate with the leve...

    Authors: Peter Lenart, Julie Bienertová-Vašků and Luděk Berec
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:87

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