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  1. Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major excep...

    Authors: Saša Stefanović, Danny W Rice and Jeffrey D Palmer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:35
  2. The clear dominance of two-gender sex in recent species is a notorious puzzle of evolutionary theory. It has at least two layers: besides the most fundamental and challenging question why sex exists at all, th...

    Authors: Tamás L Czárán and Rolf F Hoekstra
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:34
  3. Modern-day proteins were selected during long evolutionary history as descendants of ancient life forms. In silico reconstruction of such ancestral protein sequences facilitates our understanding of evolutionary ...

    Authors: Wei Cai, Jimin Pei and Nick V Grishin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:33
  4. The size distribution of gene families in a broad range of genomes is well approximated by a generalized Pareto function. Evolution of ensembles of gene families can be described with Birth, Death, and Innovat...

    Authors: Georgy P Karev, Yuri I Wolf, Faina S Berezovskaya and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:32
  5. Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. Establishing the adaptive ba...

    Authors: REL Paul, T Lafond, CDM Müller-Graf, S Nithiuthai, PT Brey and JC Koella
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:30
  6. DNA repair genes encode proteins that protect organisms against genetic damage generated by environmental agents and by-products of cell metabolism. The importance of these genes in life maintenance is support...

    Authors: Marinalva Martins-Pinheiro, Rodrigo S Galhardo, Claudia Lage, Keronninn M Lima-Bessa, Karina A Aires and Carlos FM Menck
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:29
  7. Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds) is an ideal model group in which to study a wide range of behavioural, ecological and macroevolutionary processes across species. However, comparative studies depend on phylo...

    Authors: Gavin H Thomas, Matthew A Wills and Tamás Székely
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:28
  8. The Campanulaceae (the "hare bell" or "bellflower" family) is a derived angiosperm family comprised of about 600 species treated in 35 to 55 genera. Taxonomic treatments vary widely and little phylogenetic wor...

    Authors: Mary E Cosner, Linda A Raubeson and Robert K Jansen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:27
  9. With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are severa...

    Authors: MyLo L Thao, Linda Baumann and Paul Baumann
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:25
  10. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, throughout the animal kingdom. These neurotransmitters typi...

    Authors: Emily E Hare and Curtis M Loer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:24
  11. The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly ...

    Authors: Martin Irestedt, Jon Fjeldså, Johan AA Nylander and Per GP Ericson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:23
  12. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused a severe global epidemic in 2003 which led to hundreds of deaths and many thousands of hospitalizations. The virus causing SARS was identified as...

    Authors: Zhongming Zhao, Haipeng Li, Xiaozhuang Wu, Yixi Zhong, Keqin Zhang, Ya-Ping Zhang, Eric Boerwinkle and Yun-Xin Fu
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:21
  13. In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimat...

    Authors: Tobias Müller, Sven Rahmann, Thomas Dandekar and Matthias Wolf
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:20
  14. Most analysis programs for inferring molecular phylogenies are difficult to use, in particular for researchers with little programming experience.

    Authors: Gangolf Jobb, Arndt von Haeseler and Korbinian Strimmer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:18

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2015 15:243

  15. Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts. Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts, some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragme...

    Authors: Sérgio L Pereira and Allan J Baker
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:17
  16. Examination of ancient gene families can provide an insight into how the evolution of gene structure can relate to function. Functional homologs of the evolutionarily conserved transforming acidic coiled coil (TA...

    Authors: Ivan H Still, Ananthalakshmy K Vettaikkorumakankauv, Anthony DiMatteo and Ping Liang
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:16
  17. The North American Agalinis are representatives of a taxonomically difficult group that has been subject to extensive taxonomic revision from species level through higher sub-generic designations (e.g., subsectio...

    Authors: Maile C Neel and Michael P Cummings
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:15
  18. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the very few South American mosquito vectors of malaria successfully colonized in the laboratory. These vectors are very hard to breed because t...

    Authors: José BP Lima, Denise Valle and Alexandre A Peixoto
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:12
  19. Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have s...

    Authors: Frédéric Delsuc, Sergio F Vizcaíno and Emmanuel JP Douzery
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:11
  20. Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are systemically mobile molecules that regulate homeostasis at nanomolar concentrations. PNPs are up-regulated under conditions of osmotic stress and PNP-dependent processes i...

    Authors: Victoria Nembaware, Cathal Seoighe, Muhammed Sayed and Chris Gehring
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:10
  21. Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have general...

    Authors: Elisabeth Arévalo, Yong Zhu, James M Carpenter and Joan E Strassmann
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:8
  22. Iron-sulfur (FeS) proteins are present in all living organisms and play important roles in electron transport and metalloenzyme catalysis. The maturation of FeS proteins in eukaryotes is an essential function ...

    Authors: Mark van der Giezen, Siân Cox and Jorge Tovar
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:7
  23. Insecticide resistance is now common in insects due to the frequent use of chemicals to control them, which provides a useful tool to study the adaptation of eukaryotic genome to new environments. Although num...

    Authors: Ming An Shi, Andrée Lougarre, Carole Alies, Isabelle Frémaux, Zhen Hua Tang, Jure Stojan and Didier Fournier
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:5
  24. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase causing death of insects. Resistance-modified acetylcholinesterases(AChEs) have been described in many insect species and se...

    Authors: Philippe Menozzi, Ming An Shi, Andrée Lougarre, Zhen Hua Tang and Didier Fournier
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:4
  25. Vertebrate genes often appear to cluster within the background of nontranscribed genomic DNA. Here an analysis of the physical distribution of gene structures on human chromosome 7 was performed to confirm the...

    Authors: Wayne S Kendal
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:3
  26. The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated ...

    Authors: S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:2
  27. Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because ...

    Authors: David Houle, Jason Mezey, Paul Galpern and Ashley Carter
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:25
  28. The widespread introduction of amino acid substitutions into organismal proteomes has occurred during natural evolution, but has been difficult to achieve by directed evolution. The adaptation of the translati...

    Authors: Jamie M Bacher, James J Bull and Andrew D Ellington
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:24
  29. Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the...

    Authors: Norbert Pongratz, Martin Storhas, Salvador Carranza and Nicolaas K Michiels
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:23
  30. Analytical methods have been proposed to determine whether there are evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) for a trait of ecological significance, or whether there is disruptive selection in a population appr...

    Authors: Émile Ajar
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:22
  31. Several studies have suggested that proteins that interact with more partners evolve more slowly. The strength and validity of this association has been called into question. Here we investigate how biases in ...

    Authors: Jesse D Bloom and Christoph Adami
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:21
  32. Drosophila nasuta nasuta (2n = 8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans (2n = 6) are a pair of sibling allopatric chromosomal cross-fertile races of the nasuta subgroup of immigrans species group of Drosophila. Interr...

    Authors: Ballagere P Harini and Nallur B Ramachandra
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:20
  33. The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational metho...

    Authors: Alan M Moses, Derek Y Chiang, Manolis Kellis, Eric S Lander and Michael B Eisen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:19
  34. The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance a...

    Authors: Colin R Jackson and Sandra L Dugas
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:18
  35. Dof proteins are a family of plant-specific transcription factors that contain a particular class of zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. Members of this family have been found to play diverse roles in gene regulat...

    Authors: Diego Lijavetzky, Pilar Carbonero and Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:17
  36. Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have ...

    Authors: Per GP Ericson, Ida Envall, Martin Irestedt and Janette A Norman
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:16
  37. Genomic imprinting refers to the differential expression of genes inherited from the mother and father (matrigenes and patrigenes). The kinship theory of genomic imprinting treats parent-specific gene expressi...

    Authors: David C Queller
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:15
  38. Lateral gene transfer can introduce genes with novel functions into genomes or replace genes with functionally similar orthologs or paralogs. Here we present a study of the occurrence of the latter gene replac...

    Authors: Jan O Andersson and Andrew J Roger
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:14
  39. A key event in the origin of life on this planet has been formation of self-replicating RNA-type molecules, which were complex enough to undergo a Darwinian-type evolution (origin of the "RNA world"). However,...

    Authors: Armen Y Mulkidjanian, Dmitry A Cherepanov and Michael Y Galperin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:12

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