Skip to main content

Correction to: A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella

The Original Article was published on 18 December 2017


After publication of Nakano et al. (2017) [1], the authors became aware of the fact that the new species-group name erected for the two specimens of a Japanese xenoturbellid species in the article is not available because Nakano et al. (2017) [1] does not meet the requirement of the amendment of Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code) [2]. The authors therefore describe the two xenoturbellids as a new species again in this correction article. Methods for morphological observation, DNA extraction and sequencing were as described in Nakano et al. (2017) [1]. The holotype and paratype specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba (NSMT), Japan. The DNA sequences obtained were deposited in the International Nucleotide Sequence Database (INSD).

Genus Xenoturbella Westblad, 1949 [3]

Xenoturbella japonica sp. nov.

(Figs. 1–3, Additional files 1–3 in Nakano et al. (2017) [1])

Etymology. Named for the locality where the specimens were collected.

Holotype. NSMT-Xe 2, female (Figs. 1, 3, Additional files 1, 2 in Nakano et al. (2017) [1]), off Jogashima, Miura, Kanagawa, Japan, 35°06.93″ N 139°33.72″ E to 35°06.95″ N 139°33.33″ E, 380–554 m depth, December 9th, 2015.

Paratype. NSMT-Xe 1, juvenile, sex unknown (Figs. 2, 3, Additional files 1, 3 in Nakano et al. (2017) [1]), Sanriku coast, Iwate, Japan, 39°37.86″ N 142°18.22″ E to 39°37.00″ N 142°17.60″ E, 517–560 m depth, July 18th, 2013.

Description of female. Based on holotype. Body 5.3 cm in length; pale orange with coloration getting darker toward the anterior. In live specimens, muscles hold the dorsal body wall in a W-shape (three ridges and two troughs). Body shape actively changes by contracting and elongating when alive. Ring furrow and side furrow are present. Ventral mouth present, oval-shaped, just anterior to ring furrow. Glandular network present over ventral surface, starting near anterior tip of body and ending just in front of ring furrow. Internally, body wall with epidermis, circular and longitudinal muscles, parenchyma and gastrodermis present. Oocytes present within intestine. Statocyst situated near anterior tip of body, just inside side furrow.

Description of juvenile. Based on paratype. Similar to female, but differs as follows: body 1.1 cm in length; pale orange in color; dorsal body surface in live specimen smooth, lacking longitudinal ridges and troughs, similar to that of X. bocki; gametes not observed. Ventral glandular network not detected externally, but observed with microCT imaging.

Genetic information. Whole mitochondrial genome sequences (15,244 bp in holotype; 15,249 bp in paratype) and partial Histone H3 gene sequences (346 bp in holotype; 413 bp in paratype) were determined and deposited as INSD accession numbers LC228486, LC228485, LC228579 and LC228578, respectively.

Remarks. The same species name presented in Nakano et al. (2017) [1] is nomen nudum as the publication does not meet the requirement of the amendment of Article 8.5.3 of the Code [2]. The present erratum fully meets the amended provisions of the Code, and thus this work makes the specific name japonica in the combination of Xenoturbella japonica available.


The authors would like to thank Takafumi Nakano for discussions concerning this erratum.


  1. Nakano, et al. A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:245.

  2. International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Bull Zool Nomencl. 2012;69:161–9.

  3. Westblad E. Xenoturbella bocki n.g, n.sp, a peculiar, primitive turbellarian type. Ark Zool. 1949;1:3–29.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hiroaki Nakano.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nakano, H., Miyazawa, H., Maeno, A. et al. Correction to: A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella. BMC Evol Biol 18, 83 (2018).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: