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Table 3 The population needs to be of a certain size in order for specialists to evolve

From: Trade-offs drive resource specialization and the gradual establishment of ecotypes

logλ σ 1 σ 2 n t a n t b n t c
-2 10 1 8.90±0.31 7.25±0.64 1.00±0.00
-3 0.1 0.01 3.25±1.16 2.75±0.64 1.60±0.50
-3 1 0.1 5.25±1.21 4.25±0.72 1.60±0.50
-3 10 1 8.90±0.31 8.85±0.37 1.40±0.50
  1. A population size of N =100 is too small to accommodate different ecotypes, while 1000 is large enough that selection can distinguish between different phenotypes and negative frequency-dependent selection is able to sustain diversity. Increasing N beyond 1000 has only a small positive effect on the degree of specialization. μ=0.05. aN =5000. bN =1000. cN =100.