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  1. Swarm-founding epiponine wasps are an intriguing group of social insects in which colonies are polygynic (several queens share reproduction) and differentiation between castes is often not obvious. However, ca...

    Authors: Mário V Baio, Fernando B Noll and Ronaldo Zucchi
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:10
  2. Aminoadipate reductase (Lys2) is a fungal-specific protein. This enzyme contains an adenylating domain. A similar primary structure can be found in some bacterial antibiotic/peptide synthetases. In this study,...

    Authors: Kwang-Deuk An, Hiromi Nishida, Yoshiharu Miura and Akira Yokota
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:9
  3. The study of organisms with restricted dispersal abilities and presence in the fossil record is particularly adequate to understand the impact of climate changes on the distribution and genetic structure of sp...

    Authors: Markus Pfenninger, David Posada and Frédéric Magnin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:8
  4. Runx genes encode proteins defined by the highly conserved Runt DNA-binding domain. Studies of Runx genes and proteins in model organisms indicate that they are key transcriptional regulators of animal develop...

    Authors: Jessica Rennert, James A Coffman, Arcady R Mushegian and Anthony J Robertson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:4
  5. The rate at which fitness declines as an organism's genome accumulates random mutations is an important variable in several evolutionary theories. At an intuitive level, it might seem natural that random mutat...

    Authors: Claus O Wilke, Richard E Lenski and Christoph Adami
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:3
  6. Comparative analysis of sequenced genomes reveals numerous instances of apparent horizontal gene transfer (HGT), at least in prokaryotes, and indicates that lineage-specific gene loss might have been even more...

    Authors: Boris G Mirkin, Trevor I Fenner, Michael Y Galperin and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:2
  7. It has been suggested that rates of protein evolution are influenced, to a great extent, by the proportion of amino acid residues that are directly involved in protein function. In agreement with this hypothes...

    Authors: I King Jordan, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:1

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:5

  8. In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins....

    Authors: David J Lipman, Alexander Souvorov, Eugene V Koonin, Anna R Panchenko and Tatiana A Tatusova
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:20
  9. Experimental populations of Escherichia coli have evolved for 20,000 generations in a uniform environment. Their rate of improvement, as measured in competitions with the ancestor in that environment, has decline...

    Authors: J Arjan GM de Visser and Richard E Lenski
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:19
  10. Power distributions appear in numerous biological, physical and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connect...

    Authors: Georgy P Karev, Yuri I Wolf, Andrey Y Rzhetsky, Faina S Berezovskaya and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:18
  11. Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemi...

    Authors: Linda E Watson, Paul L Bates, Timothy M Evans, Matthew M Unwin and James R Estes
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:17
  12. The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) is a widely used paradigm to study cooperation in evolutionary biology, as well as in fields as diverse as moral philosophy, sociology, economics and politics. Players are typically...

    Authors: Dominic DP Johnson, Pavel Stopka and Josh Bell
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:15
  13. Little is known about phytoplankton communities inhabiting low pH environments such as volcanic and geothermal sites or acidic waters. Only specialised organisms are able to tolerate such extreme conditions. T...

    Authors: Volker AR Huss, Claudia Ciniglia, Paola Cennamo, Salvatore Cozzolino, Gabriele Pinto and Antonino Pollio
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:13
  14. Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) (pdtc) is a small secreted metabolite that has a high affinity for transition metals, increases iron uptake efficiency by 20% in Pseudomonas stutzeri, has the ability to redu...

    Authors: Marc S Cortese, Allan B Caplan and Ronald L Crawford
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:8
  15. The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens). Remarkably, th...

    Authors: Jaime E Blair, Kazuho Ikeo, Takashi Gojobori and S Blair Hedges
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:7
  16. In fungi, aminoadipate reductase converts 2-aminoadipate to 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde. However, other organisms have no homologue to the aminoadipate reductase gene and this pathway appears to be restricte...

    Authors: Kwang-Deuk An, Hiromi Nishida, Yoshiharu Miura and Akira Yokota
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:6
  17. The potential adaptive significance of transposable elements (TEs) to the host genomes in which they reside is a topic that has been hotly debated by molecular evolutionists for more than two decades. Recent g...

    Authors: Andrea M McCollum, Eric W Ganko, Paula A Barrass, Jose M Rodriguez and John F McDonald
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:5
  18. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and...

    Authors: Jean-Luc Fausser, Prosper Prosper, Giuseppe Donati, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato and Yves Rumpler
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:4
  19. Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm) mutants of maize (Zea m...

    Authors: Wilfred Vermerris, Karen J Thompson, Lauren M McIntyre and John D Axtell
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:2
  20. Prior to this report, members of the inward rectifier family, or Kir, have been found only in eukaryotes. Like most K+ channels, the pore-forming part of the protein is formed by four identical, or closely relate...

    Authors: Stewart R Durell and H Robert Guy
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:14
  21. Any DNA sequence is a result of compromise between the selection and mutation pressures exerted on it during evolution. It is difficult to estimate the relative influence of each of these pressures on the rate...

    Authors: Maria Kowalczuk, Pawel Mackiewicz, Dorota Mackiewicz, Aleksandra Nowicka, Malgorzata Dudkiewicz, Miroslaw R Dudek and Stanislaw Cebrat
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:13
  22. Despite the medical importance of trichomoniasis, little is known about the genetic relatedness of Trichomonas vaginalis strains with similar biological characteristics. Furthermore, the distribution of endobiont...

    Authors: Vladimír Hampl, Štěpánka Vaňáčová, Jaroslav Kulda and Jaroslav Flegr
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:11
  23. Although closely related, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia and the Rickettsiacae (Rickettsia and Ehrlichia), employ different evolutionary life history strategies. Wolbachia are obligate endocellular symbionts ...

    Authors: Cort L Anderson and Timothy L Karr
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:10
  24. Nuclear DNA sequences provide genetic information that complements studies using mitochondrial DNA. Some 'universal' primer sets have been developed that target introns within protein-coding loci, but many sim...

    Authors: Joseph M Quattro, William J Jones and Kenneth J Oswald
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:9
  25. The availability of multiple complete genome sequences from diverse taxa prompts the development of new phylogenetic approaches, which attempt to incorporate information derived from comparative analysis of co...

    Authors: Yuri I Wolf, Igor B Rogozin, Nick V Grishin, Roman L Tatusov and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:8
  26. Polytene chromosome banding patterns have long been used by Drosophila evolutionists to infer degree of relatedness among taxa. Recently, nucleotide sequences have preempted this traditional method. We place the ...

    Authors: Patrick M O'Grady, Richard H Baker, Celeste M Durando, William J Etges and Robert DeSalle
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:6
  27. Species of Tetrahymena were grouped into three complexes based on morphological and life history traits: the pyriformis complex of microstomatous forms; the patula complex of microstome-macrostome transformers; a...

    Authors: Michaela C Strüder-Kypke, André-Denis G Wright, Cheryl A Jerome and Denis H Lynn
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:5
  28. Genomic sequence analyses have shown that horizontal gene transfer occurred during the origin of eukaryotes as a consequence of symbiosis. However, details of the timing and number of symbiotic events are uncl...

    Authors: S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Watanabe
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:4
  29. The genome of invertebrates is rich in retroelements which are structurally reminiscent of the retroviruses of vertebrates. Those containing three open reading frames (ORFs), including an env-like gene, may well ...

    Authors: Christophe Terzian, Alain Pélisson and Alain Bucheton
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:3
  30. In order to maintain populations as units of reproduction and thus enable anagenetic evolution, genetic factors must exist which prevent continuing reproductive separation or enhance reproductive contact. This...

    Authors: Hans-Rolf Gregorius and Wilfried Steiner
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001 1:2

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