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  1. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused a severe global epidemic in 2003 which led to hundreds of deaths and many thousands of hospitalizations. The virus causing SARS was identified as...

    Authors: Zhongming Zhao, Haipeng Li, Xiaozhuang Wu, Yixi Zhong, Keqin Zhang, Ya-Ping Zhang, Eric Boerwinkle and Yun-Xin Fu
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:21
  2. Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts. Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts, some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragme...

    Authors: Sérgio L Pereira and Allan J Baker
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:17
  3. Examination of ancient gene families can provide an insight into how the evolution of gene structure can relate to function. Functional homologs of the evolutionarily conserved transforming acidic coiled coil (TA...

    Authors: Ivan H Still, Ananthalakshmy K Vettaikkorumakankauv, Anthony DiMatteo and Ping Liang
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:16
  4. The North American Agalinis are representatives of a taxonomically difficult group that has been subject to extensive taxonomic revision from species level through higher sub-generic designations (e.g., subsectio...

    Authors: Maile C Neel and Michael P Cummings
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:15
  5. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the very few South American mosquito vectors of malaria successfully colonized in the laboratory. These vectors are very hard to breed because t...

    Authors: José BP Lima, Denise Valle and Alexandre A Peixoto
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:12
  6. Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have s...

    Authors: Frédéric Delsuc, Sergio F Vizcaíno and Emmanuel JP Douzery
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:11
  7. Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are systemically mobile molecules that regulate homeostasis at nanomolar concentrations. PNPs are up-regulated under conditions of osmotic stress and PNP-dependent processes i...

    Authors: Victoria Nembaware, Cathal Seoighe, Muhammed Sayed and Chris Gehring
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:10
  8. Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have general...

    Authors: Elisabeth Arévalo, Yong Zhu, James M Carpenter and Joan E Strassmann
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:8
  9. Iron-sulfur (FeS) proteins are present in all living organisms and play important roles in electron transport and metalloenzyme catalysis. The maturation of FeS proteins in eukaryotes is an essential function ...

    Authors: Mark van der Giezen, Siân Cox and Jorge Tovar
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:7
  10. Insecticide resistance is now common in insects due to the frequent use of chemicals to control them, which provides a useful tool to study the adaptation of eukaryotic genome to new environments. Although num...

    Authors: Ming An Shi, Andrée Lougarre, Carole Alies, Isabelle Frémaux, Zhen Hua Tang, Jure Stojan and Didier Fournier
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:5
  11. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase causing death of insects. Resistance-modified acetylcholinesterases(AChEs) have been described in many insect species and se...

    Authors: Philippe Menozzi, Ming An Shi, Andrée Lougarre, Zhen Hua Tang and Didier Fournier
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:4
  12. Vertebrate genes often appear to cluster within the background of nontranscribed genomic DNA. Here an analysis of the physical distribution of gene structures on human chromosome 7 was performed to confirm the...

    Authors: Wayne S Kendal
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:3
  13. The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated ...

    Authors: S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:2
  14. Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because ...

    Authors: David Houle, Jason Mezey, Paul Galpern and Ashley Carter
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:25
  15. The widespread introduction of amino acid substitutions into organismal proteomes has occurred during natural evolution, but has been difficult to achieve by directed evolution. The adaptation of the translati...

    Authors: Jamie M Bacher, James J Bull and Andrew D Ellington
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:24
  16. Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the...

    Authors: Norbert Pongratz, Martin Storhas, Salvador Carranza and Nicolaas K Michiels
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:23
  17. Analytical methods have been proposed to determine whether there are evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) for a trait of ecological significance, or whether there is disruptive selection in a population appr...

    Authors: Émile Ajar
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:22
  18. Several studies have suggested that proteins that interact with more partners evolve more slowly. The strength and validity of this association has been called into question. Here we investigate how biases in ...

    Authors: Jesse D Bloom and Christoph Adami
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:21
  19. Drosophila nasuta nasuta (2n = 8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans (2n = 6) are a pair of sibling allopatric chromosomal cross-fertile races of the nasuta subgroup of immigrans species group of Drosophila. Interr...

    Authors: Ballagere P Harini and Nallur B Ramachandra
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:20
  20. The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational metho...

    Authors: Alan M Moses, Derek Y Chiang, Manolis Kellis, Eric S Lander and Michael B Eisen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:19
  21. The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance a...

    Authors: Colin R Jackson and Sandra L Dugas
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:18
  22. Dof proteins are a family of plant-specific transcription factors that contain a particular class of zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. Members of this family have been found to play diverse roles in gene regulat...

    Authors: Diego Lijavetzky, Pilar Carbonero and Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:17
  23. Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have ...

    Authors: Per GP Ericson, Ida Envall, Martin Irestedt and Janette A Norman
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:16
  24. Genomic imprinting refers to the differential expression of genes inherited from the mother and father (matrigenes and patrigenes). The kinship theory of genomic imprinting treats parent-specific gene expressi...

    Authors: David C Queller
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:15
  25. Lateral gene transfer can introduce genes with novel functions into genomes or replace genes with functionally similar orthologs or paralogs. Here we present a study of the occurrence of the latter gene replac...

    Authors: Jan O Andersson and Andrew J Roger
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:14
  26. A key event in the origin of life on this planet has been formation of self-replicating RNA-type molecules, which were complex enough to undergo a Darwinian-type evolution (origin of the "RNA world"). However,...

    Authors: Armen Y Mulkidjanian, Dmitry A Cherepanov and Michael Y Galperin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:12
  27. Swarm-founding epiponine wasps are an intriguing group of social insects in which colonies are polygynic (several queens share reproduction) and differentiation between castes is often not obvious. However, ca...

    Authors: Mário V Baio, Fernando B Noll and Ronaldo Zucchi
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:10
  28. Aminoadipate reductase (Lys2) is a fungal-specific protein. This enzyme contains an adenylating domain. A similar primary structure can be found in some bacterial antibiotic/peptide synthetases. In this study,...

    Authors: Kwang-Deuk An, Hiromi Nishida, Yoshiharu Miura and Akira Yokota
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:9
  29. The study of organisms with restricted dispersal abilities and presence in the fossil record is particularly adequate to understand the impact of climate changes on the distribution and genetic structure of sp...

    Authors: Markus Pfenninger, David Posada and Frédéric Magnin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:8
  30. Runx genes encode proteins defined by the highly conserved Runt DNA-binding domain. Studies of Runx genes and proteins in model organisms indicate that they are key transcriptional regulators of animal develop...

    Authors: Jessica Rennert, James A Coffman, Arcady R Mushegian and Anthony J Robertson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:4
  31. The rate at which fitness declines as an organism's genome accumulates random mutations is an important variable in several evolutionary theories. At an intuitive level, it might seem natural that random mutat...

    Authors: Claus O Wilke, Richard E Lenski and Christoph Adami
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:3
  32. Comparative analysis of sequenced genomes reveals numerous instances of apparent horizontal gene transfer (HGT), at least in prokaryotes, and indicates that lineage-specific gene loss might have been even more...

    Authors: Boris G Mirkin, Trevor I Fenner, Michael Y Galperin and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:2
  33. It has been suggested that rates of protein evolution are influenced, to a great extent, by the proportion of amino acid residues that are directly involved in protein function. In agreement with this hypothes...

    Authors: I King Jordan, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:1

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:5

  34. In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins....

    Authors: David J Lipman, Alexander Souvorov, Eugene V Koonin, Anna R Panchenko and Tatiana A Tatusova
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:20
  35. Experimental populations of Escherichia coli have evolved for 20,000 generations in a uniform environment. Their rate of improvement, as measured in competitions with the ancestor in that environment, has decline...

    Authors: J Arjan GM de Visser and Richard E Lenski
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:19
  36. Power distributions appear in numerous biological, physical and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connect...

    Authors: Georgy P Karev, Yuri I Wolf, Andrey Y Rzhetsky, Faina S Berezovskaya and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:18
  37. Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemi...

    Authors: Linda E Watson, Paul L Bates, Timothy M Evans, Matthew M Unwin and James R Estes
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:17
  38. The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) is a widely used paradigm to study cooperation in evolutionary biology, as well as in fields as diverse as moral philosophy, sociology, economics and politics. Players are typically...

    Authors: Dominic DP Johnson, Pavel Stopka and Josh Bell
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:15

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