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Table 5 Environmental and human activity characteristics in the three study sites (LLA, MSA, and ISA) in Cat Ba National Park

From: Tree regeneration characteristics in limestone forests of the Cat Ba National Park, Vietnam

Factors Acronym Average LLA MSA ISA
Slope (°) T_Sl 17.23 ± 10.71 13.70 ± 9.67a 19.02 ± 10.38b 21.85 ± 10.62c
Rock surface (%) T_RS 44.49 ± 31.62 22.71 ± 23.02a 56.71 ± 22.84b 71.99 ± 23.07c
Elevation (m) T_Ele 75.33 ± 38.92 78.06 ± 37.02b 66.57 ± 37.40a 78.35 ± 42.30b
Soil depth (cm) S_SD 61.78 ± 38.77 75.89 ± 40.24b 51.97 ± 31.25a 45.67 ± 32.84a
Rock in soil (%) S_SR 9.59 ± 15.95 11.31 ± 19.83b 10.75 ± 14.96b 5.50 ± 3.77a
Soil moisture (%) S_SM 8.98 ± 5.72 5.98 ± 5.26a 11.06 ± 4.40b 12.41 ± 4.72c
Sand (%) S_Sand 31.45 ± 12.86 32.40 ± 11.26b 24.75 ± 7.35a 35.76 ± 16.55c
Silt (%) S_Silt 40.10 ± 8.18 41.95 ± 7.35b 41.73 ± 5.48b 35.37 ± 9.62a
Clay (%) S_Clay 28.45 ± 9.48 25.64 ± 10.47a 33.52 ± 5.25c 28.86 ± 8.61b
Soil humus content (%) S_SH 3.11 ± 1.49 2.67 ± 1.32a 2.76 ± 1.24a 4.20 ± 1.44b
pH S_pH 5.10 ± 0.56 4.79 ± 0.50a 5.40 ± 0.53b 5.39 ± 0.36b
Hydrolytic acidity (mmol /100 g) S_HA 5.01 ± 2.11 5.12 ± 1.98b 4.58 ± 1.97a 5.20 ± 2.38b
Cation exchange capacity (mmol / 100 g) S_CEC 6.92 ± 1.53 6.12 ± 1.43a 7.33 ± 1.11b 7.96 ± 1.22c
Base saturation (%) S_BS 58.88 ± 11.66 55.34 ± 12.09a 62.78 ± 11.11b 61.64 ± 9.31b
Direct site factor L_DSF 11.44 ± 6.19 10.68 ± 5.63a 12.14 ± 7.79b 12.15 ± 5.31b
Indirect site factor L_ISF 9.17 ± 6.40 8.21 ± 2.75a 10.37 ± 11.68b 9.81 ± 3.39b
Total site factor L_TSF 10.55 ± 5.95 9.65 ± 4.40a 11.54 ± 9.08b 11.25 ± 4.38b
Openness L_OPN 13.70 ± 8.43 12.26 ± 6.23a 14.99 ± 12.99b 15.08 ± 5.81b
Gap fraction L_GF 13.63 ± 8.36 12.22 ± 6.1a 14.85 ± 12.98b 15.04 ± 5.70b
Leaf area index L_LAI 3.09 ± 0.50 3.12 ± 0.35b 3.17 ± 0.71b 2.98 ± 0.50a
Ellipsoidal leaf area distribution L_ELAD 6.43 ± 2.43 6.18 ± 1.51a 6.35 ± 2.70a 6.95 ± 3.28b
Footpaths H_FP 1.19 ± 0.45 1.25 ± 0.43b 1.17 ± 0.57a 1.11 ± 0.31a
Stumps H_STP 0.11 ± 0.31 0.21 ± 0.41b 0.02 ± 0.15a 0.00 ± 0.00a
Animal traps H_AT 0.65 ± 1.42 0.54 ± 1.16a 0.33 ± 2.03b 1.22 ± 0.95a
  1. The values represent the mean and standard deviation of 30 plots per study site (in total 90 plots). Different lower-case letters indicate significant differences between the three areas (at p ≤ 0.05). We used the “multicomp” package to calculate differences between the three study sites [111]. The acronym column shows the abbreviation of the factor. T terrain factors, S soil properties, L light availabilities, and H human impact