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Table 3 Procrustes variance within modules and p-values obtained from the pairwise comparisons between the main groups (significant differences with *; p < 0.05)

From: Cranial shape diversification in horses: variation and covariation patterns under the impact of artificial selection

  Draft horses Mongolian horses Przewalski’s horses Racehorses
AON
 Procrustes variance 1.60e−03 2.05e−03 2.51e−03 2.48e−03
 Mongolian horses 2.5e−01    
 Przewalski’s horses 2.1e−02* 2.5e−01   
 Racehorses 1.8e−02* 2.5e−01 9.3e−01
ORB
 Procrustes variance 1.22e−03 1.61e−03 1.83e−03 1.56e−03
 Mongolian horses 4.5e−01    
 Przewalski’s horses 2.2e−01 5.6e−01   
 Racehorses 4.5e−01 8.5e−01 5.6e−01
MOL
 Procrustes variance 1.34e−03 2.42e−03 3.15e−03 2.07e−03
 Mongolian horses 3.4e−02*    
 Przewalski’s horses 6.0e−03* 1.3e−01   
 Racehorses 1.3e−01 4.3e−01 3.4e−02*
ZP
 Procrustes variance 1.47e−03 1.55e−03 2.37e−03 1.85e−03
 Mongolian horses 8.0e−01    
 Przewalski’s horses 5.4e−02 6.0e−02   
 Racehorses 3.6e−01 4.6e−01 3.0e−01
CB
 Procrustes variance 3.91e−03 3.70e−03 4.39e−03 7.50e−03
 Mongolian horses 8.3e−01    
 Przewalski’s horses 8.2e−01 8.1e−01   
 Racehorses 4.5e−01 4.5e−01 6.6e−01
CV
 Procrustes variance 2.94e−03 2.93e−03 3.80e−03 2.96e−03
 Mongolian horses 1.0    
 Przewalski’s horses 5.3e−01 5.3e−01   
 Racehorses 1.0 1.0 5.3e−01
  1. The p-values were adjusted using a Benjamini–Hochberg correction
  2. AON anterior oral-nasal, ORB orbital, MOL molar, CB basicranium, ZP zygomatic-pterygoid, CV cranial vault