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Table 3 Results of CCA analyses, comparing the 2016–19 current monitoring results from plots refaunated by large ungulates versus neglected plots

From: Restoring a butterfly hot spot by large ungulates refaunation: the case of the Milovice military training range, Czech Republic

Model E1 E2 E3 E4 % variation Axis1 F, P All axes F, P
 ~ Nectar 0.039     1.2 4.9, ns  
 ~ Weather 0.034 0.027    1.7 4.2, ns 3.8, ns
 ~ Factorial hour 0.021 0.016 0.012 0.008 0.6 2.5, ns 1.3 + 
 ~ Polynomial hour 0.017 0.006    0.3 2.1, ns 1.4*
 ~ Factorial year 0.114 0.049 0.019   6.1 14.5* 7.9**
 ~ Linear year 0.045     1.4 5.6, ns  
 ~ Position (forward selected: latitude) 0.026     0.7 3.2**  
 ~ Site 0.026     0.7 3.2**  
FW covariate modela (~ factorial year + latitude) 0.114 0.054 0.020 0.019 8.0 14.5*** 6.8***
BW covariate modelb (~ factorial year + latitude + nectar) 0.120 0.056 0.035 0.019 8.1 15.3*** 6.6***
 ~ Tanks 0.015     0.3 1.9, ns  
 ~ Tanks | factorial year + latitude 0.007     0.1 1.0, ns  
 ~ Tanks | factorial year + latitude + nectar 0.007     0.0 1.0, ns  
 ~ Refaunationc 0.019 0.010    0.5 2.3, ns 1.8, ns
 ~ Refaunation | factorial year + latitude 0.019 0.006    0.4 2.5** 1.7**
 ~ Refaunation | factorial year + latitude + nectar 0.016 0.006    0.3 2.5* 1.5*
 ~ Refaunation + tanks 0.029 0.014 0.010   1.1 3.6, ns 2.2*
 ~ Refaunation + tanks | factorial year + latitude 0.022 0.009 0.004   0.5 2.9** 1.6**
 ~ Refaunation + tanks | factorial year + latitude + nectar 0.023 0.008 0.004   0.6 3.1** 1.6**
 ~ Ungulatesd 0.023 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.8 2.8 +  1.6 + 
 ~ Ungulates | factorial year + latitude 0.029 0.010 0.009 0.004 0.4 3.0* 1.3*
 ~ Ungulates | factorial year + latitude + nectar 0.019 0.009 0.006 0.003 0.3 2.6* 1.2 + 
 ~ Ungulates + tanks 0.035 0.015 0.015 0.010 1.4 4.2* 1.9*
 ~ Ungulates + tanks | latitude + factorial year 0.023 0.010 0.009 0.004 0.4 3.0* 1.3*
 ~ Ungulates + tanks | latitude + factorial year + nectar 0.025 0.009 0.008 0.005 0.5 3.4* 1.3 + 
  1. Bold E1–E4 are eigenvalues of respective canonical axes, bold F and P values refer to results of Monte Carlo tests for the first canonical axis and all canonical axes. The models written in bold were used for interpreting the ordination axes by species traits (see Table 4)
  2. aObtained by forward selection (FW) from all significant terms above
  3. bObtained by backward selection (BW) from all terms above
  4. c3-level factor (refaunation, cattle, and neglect)
  5. d5-level factor (horse, aurochs, wisent, cattle, and neglect)
  6. +P < 0.1, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001