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Table 3 Effect of phenotypic traits on the local breeding asynchrony of males (a) and females (b) measured as the mean difference (days) in the onset of laying relative to the neighbours. Positive values indicate that individuals bred later relative to the neighbours. Phenotypic traits in males and females were also compared in relation to their neighbours. The effect of age was estimated by creating two orthogonal vectors for the first and second polynomial from the original variable (with function "poly" in the R software), and thus the resulting estimates cannot be immediately interpreted biologically (see main text for details)

From: Phenology-mediated effects of phenotype on the probability of social polygyny and its fitness consequences in a migratory passerine

(a) Males
Random effects Variance Std. dev
Male ID 34.10 5.84
Year 1.51 1.23
Residual 12.6 3.55
Fixed effects: Estimate Std. error df t value P
Intercept − 1.20 0.35 28.17 −3.39  < 0.001
Male's tarsus length 1.18 0.13 14160 9.13  < 0.001
Male's age − 1.59 0.09 1715 −18.22  < 0.001
Male's age (quadratic) 1.04 0.06 16520 18.37  < 0.001
Male's forehead patch size − 0.05 0.00 15110 −10.98  < 0.001
Male's black plumage (dorsal) − 0.01 0.00 16540 5.53  < 0.001
Male's wing size − 0.54 0.04 15730 −13.34  < 0.001
(b) Females
Random effects Variance Std. Dev
Female ID 44.85 6.70
Year 1.37 1.17
Residual 13.47 3.67
Fixed effects: Estimate Std. error df t value P
Intercept 0.01 0.34 30.33 0.02  < 0.001
Female's tarsus length 0.90 0.12 19090 7.38  < 0.001
Female's age − 2.08 0.08 1922 − 25.03  < 0.001
Female's age (quadratic) 1.68 0.05 20190 30.84  < 0.001
Female's wing size − 0.71 0.04 20400 − 18.76  < 0.001