Effects of care-giver identity and body size on starvation resistance. Offspring reared by a queen (QR nests) or a small group of workers (WR nests) were subjected to assay where food was removed and time until death (starvation) was recorded. a Starvation resistance as a function of care-giver identity; x-axis, time until starvation; y-axis, total number of bees. Dashed lines represent the mean survival hours for each group, care-giver (QR nests: mean ± s.e.m. 28.66 ± 0.21 h; WR nests: 25.60 ± 0.14 h). Care-giver identity impacted starvation resistance (Tukey’s post doc: QR versus WR: p = 0.009). b Relationship between starvation resistance and body size (rho = − 0.056, p = 0.580). Dashed lines represent regression lines for each group and the solid line represents the regression line for all samples combined.