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Table 3 Summary of molecular studies dealing with the divergence times of cichlids with the respective calibration points used as well as the node age of the Haplochromini and Tropheini

From: New haplochromine cichlid from the upper Miocene (9–10 MYA) of Central Kenya

Study/Reference Calibration point Node age (MYA; mean, SD or 95% confidence interval or 95% HPD interval or 95% credibility interval)
Haplochromini Tropheini
Genner et al., 2007 [11] Gondwana; mitochondrial DNA only 22.7 ± 3.5 6.8 ± 1.1
Cichlid fossils; mitochondrial DNA only 10.5 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 0.5
Day et al., 2008 [275] Root of LTR set to 12 MYA 3.4, 2.7–4.5
Root of LTR set to 28 MYA based on calibrations of Gondwana fragmentation 7.9, 6.3–10.5
Koblmüller et al., 2008 [22] Lacustrine habitat in Lake Tanganyika (5–6 MYA) and Lake Malawi (0.57–1 MYA); Age of Lake Victoria superflock (0.2 MYA) 5.3, 4.9–5.7 3.4, 3.0–4.0
Santini et al., 2009 [279] 43 non-cichlid fossils; †Mahengechromis, Oligocene Heterochromis (23.3 MYA) Ca. 9
Friedman et al., 2013 [277] 10 non-cichlid fossils Ca. 7 < 5
Meyer et al., 2017 [278] Concatenation
Multispecies coalescent model Ca. 5
Irisarri, 2018 [27] Calibration scheme C10: 6.9, 3.3–10.5 4.3, 1.9–6.7
Gondwana fragmentation:
–Madagascar + India/Africa + South America max. 165 MYA
–Africa/ South America max. 101 MYA
– Madagascar/ India 88 MYA
– split Cichlasomatini/ Heroini 45.7–101 MYA
– Second split within African cichlids (excl. Heterochromis) 45.7–101 MYA
– Haplotilapiines (without Etiini) 9.3–62 MYA
– Oreochromini 5.98–47.5 MYA
– African cichlids 33.1–79.6 MYA
– H-lineage/ Lamprologini 9.3–43.2 MYA
Schedel et al., 2019 [17] Calibration set 4: 16.6, 14.3–19.2 8.7, 6.8–10.7
– †Tremembichthys 55.8–23.0 MYA
– †Gymnogeophagus eocenicus 45.4–39.9 MYA
– †Plesioheros chaulidus 45.4–39.9 MYA
– †Oreochromis lorenzoi 7.24–5.33 MYA
– †Tugenchromis pickfordi 9–10 MYA
– Onset Lake Barombi Mbo 1.12–0.98 MYA
– Estimated divergence age for family Cichlidae by Matschiner et al. (2016) 82.2–98.9 MYA
  1. Abbreviations: HPD Highest posterior intervals, LTR Lake Tanganyika Radiation, MYA Million years ago, SD Standard deviation