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Table 2 Summary of seed measurements for Plukenetia, Romanoa, and Haematostemon (min–max [mean]). Size categories: (S) small, 25–100 mm3; (M) medium, 100–500 mm3; (L) large, 500–3000 mm3; (XL) extra-large, 3000–13,000 mm3; (Max) maximum, 26,000–38,000 mm3. † = measurements based solely on the species description; n/a = seeds not known

From: Seed size evolution and biogeography of Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae), a pantropical genus with traditionally cultivated oilseed species

Taxon No. seeds Length (mm) Width (mm) Thickness (mm) Estimated volume (mm3) Size category
Haematostemon guianensis Sandw. 1 4 4 4.5 38 S
Plukenetia africana Sond. 18 5.5–8 (6.6) 5–7.5 (6.5) 2.5–4 (3.4) 47–126 (79) S–M
P. ankaranensis L.J.Gillespie 6 15–18 (16.5) 16–17 (16.4) 14–17 (15.4) 1929–2623 (2187) L
P. brachybotrya Müll.Arg. 5 5–6 (5.7) 4–5.5 (4.9) 4–5 (4.5) 42–79 (67) S
P. aff. Brachybotrya 4 5.5–5.6 (5.6) 4–4.9 (4.6) 3.3–4.1 (3.7) 37–59 (49) S
P. carabiasiae J.Jiménez Ram. 24–27 21–27 14–16 3695–6107 XL
P. carolis-vegae Bussmann, Paniagua & C.Téllez 1 27 25 20 7069 XL
P. cf. carolis-vegae 2 19–20 17–18.6 13–15.8 2221–2981 (2601) L
P. conophora Müll.Arg. 3 25–29 (27) 25–27 (26.3) 25–28 (26) 8181–10,688 (9706) XL
P. corniculata Sm. 27 8–10.5 (9.3) 6–8 (7.3) 4–8 (5.5) 123–272 (197) M
P. decidua L.J.Gillespie 2 13.1 11.1–11.2 (11.2) 11.2–11.8 (11.5) 853–907 (880) L
P. huayllabambana Bussmann, C.Téllez & A.Glenn 2 25–28 (26.5) 22–27 (24.5) 17–20 (18.5) 4896–7917 (6627) XL
P. lehmanniana (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Huft & L.J.Gillespie 3 28–34.3 (30.8) 20–24 (21.7) 24–30 (26) 7037–12,919 (9289) XL
P. loretensis Ule 12 4.5–6 (5.1) 4–5.1 (4.5) 3–5 (4) 28–79 (48) S
P. madagascariensis Leandri n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
P. multiglandulosa Jabl. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
P. penninervia Müll.Arg. 8 5–6 (5.3) 5–6 (5.6) 4–5 (4.5) 60–79 (70.6) S
P. cf. penninervia 2 7 6.3–6.5 5–5.2 115–124 (120) M
P. polyadenia Müll.Arg. 19 49–56 (51.3) 33–37 (34.8) 30–36 (32.7) 26,177–37,322 (30,684) Max
P. procumbens Prain n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
P. serrata (Vell.) L.J.Gillespie 2 15–15.5 (15.3) 15.5–16 (15.8) 15–16 (15.5) 1887–2011 (1949) L
P. stipellata L.J.Gillespie 47 10–14 (11.8) 8–13.5 (10.2) 2.5–6 (4.7) 144–484 (301) M
P. supraglandulosa L.J.Gillespie 3 7–7.3 (7.2) 6.8–7.1 (6.9) 4.6–4.8 (4.7) 117–125 (122) M
P. verrucosa Sm. 10 5.3–6 (5.9) 3.7–5.5 (5.1) 3.5–5 (4) 55–69 (62) S
P. volubilis L. 14 13–22 (17) 11.8–18 (15.2) 5–9 (7.2) 480–1659 (997) (M) L
Romanoa tamnoides (A.Juss.) Radcl.-Sm. 21 6.3–8 (7.3) 5–6 (5.6) 3–4.2 (3.9) 63–101 (83) S