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Table 6 Results of population expansion tests on the four species. Fu’s F S , Tajima’s D and mismatch distribution estimate (τ) and the real expansion time (t) with 90 % credibility intervals in parentheses for each species are included. All COI sequences of S. japonica were divided into two groups: northern group and southern group, according to the phylogenetic analyses (See the results in the phylogenetic analysis). Reference: Cellana toreuma, Dong et al. [20]; Sargassum horneri, Hu et al. [36]; Atrina pectinata, Liu et al. [37]. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001

From: Causations of phylogeographic barrier of some rocky shore species along the Chinese coastline

Gene   Neutrality test Mismatch distribution
Fu’s F S Tajima’s D τ t (ka)
Siphonaria japonica
COI northern group −25.029*** −2.199* 5.750 (4.094-8.898) 440.9 (313.9-682.4)
  southern group −26.964*** −2.781*** 2.486 (1.361-3.381) 190.6 (104.4-259.3)
Cellana toreuma
COI   −30.175*** −2.497*** 3.000 (0.422-3.213) 502.5 (70.7-538.2.)
Sargassum horneri
COIII   −18.353*** −1.531* 1.875 (0.75-3.072) 119.3 (47.7-195.5)
Atrina pectinata
COI   −26.277*** −2.527*** 1.648 (1.295-4.086) 170.1 (133.7-421.7)