Geophagini Maximum Clade Credibility (MCC) tree. The MCC tree has been pruned to include species used in comparative analyses and scaled to a length of 1. Crenicichla sveni and Teleocichla gephyrogramma were used to approximate age and phylogenetic position of closely related C. saxatilis and T. sp. “preta” respectively which were not included in the original phylogeny. Photos are included to illustrate some of the phenotypic diversity in Geophagini. From the top photos are: Mikrogeophagus altispinosus, Crenicara punctulatum, Geophagus aff. dicrozoster, Biotoecus dicentrarchus, Crenicichla sp. “Orinoco-wallacii, Teleocichla sp. ‘preta’, Crenicichla lugubris, Mazarunia charadrica, Taeniacra candidi, and Satanoperca daemon. The coloured branches correspond to the geophagine adaptive peaks identified by the SURFACE model. Green branches: Crenicichla-Teleocichla adaptive peak. Blue branches: benthivorous/epibenthivorous adaptive peak. The MCC tree is modified from . Photos were taken by H. López-Fernández, J.H. Arbour, K.M. Alofs, N.K. Lujan and C.G. Montaña.