Phylogeny and frequencies (%) of Y-chromosome haplogroups in the populations studied. Haplogroups: East Asian in grey; West Eurasian in white; Indian in black. The nomenclature and the hierarchical order of the mutations are according to the Y-Chromosome Consortium [62, 67, 73], updated with more recent markers: M429 ; M481 and P31 T-del (present study). The nomenclature of haplogroup H differs from that presented by Karafet et al. , in that all of our M82 samples were also M370 positive. H: intra-population haplogroup diversity, according to Nei . In italics: markers not found. In parentheses: markers inferred. Haplogroups with an asterix* include samples negative for the examined sub-groups.