Shape changes associated with the total, allometric and non-allometric SShD in all nine species. The shape changes are shown as the difference from the male average shape (grey outlines and hollow circles) to the average shape for females (black outlines and solid circles). All the shape changes are exaggerated 5-fold for better visibility. The total SShD is the raw difference between the male and female average shapes. Allometric SShD is the component due to allometric variation (and therefore in the direction of the allometric vector for the respective species). Finally, non-allometric SShD is the residual component of SShD after subtracting the allometric component from the total SShD. The magnitudes of total shape dimorphism and its allometric and non-allometric components are indicated in units of Procrustes distance.