Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparisons of sister-species pairs from some major clades of birds. Sister-species pairs, probability of chance reciprocal phylogeny (p), and reference for phylogenetic relationship (r).

From: Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds

Sister-species pairs p r Sister-species pairs p r
Acridotheres tristis A. ginginianus 4.7 × 10-6 [52] Melospiza lincolnii M. georgiana 9.7 × 10-5 [53]
Actitis hypoleucos A. macularius 2.3 × 10-4 [47] Mitu tuberosum M. salvini 5.0 × 10-2 [54]
Aethia cristatella A. psittacula 4.1 × 10-3 [48] Molothrus bonariensis M. aeneus 6.1 × 10-4 [55]
Aethia pygmaea A. cristatella 4.1 × 10-3 [48] Morus capensis M. serrator 5.1 × 10-3 [56]
Aethia pygmaea A. psittacula 4.1 × 10-3 [48] Numenius phaeopus N. tahitiensis 8.8 × 10-4 a
Aptenodytes forsteri A. patagonicus 5.1 × 10-3 [49] Passerina ciris P. versicolor 5.0 × 10-2 [57]
Apteryx haastii A. owenii 2.0 × 10-2 [50] Phalaropus fulicarius P. lobatus 3.1 × 10-5 a
Apteryx mantelli A. rowi 4.2 × 10-4 [50] Pheucticus melanocephalus P. ludovicianus 1.9 × 10-3 [58]
Archilochus colubris A. alexandri 5.1 × 10-3 [59, 60] Picoides nuttallii P. scalaris 2.7 × 10-2 [61]
Brachyramphus brevirostris B. marmoratus 7.6 × 10-5 [48] Puffinus bulleri P. pacificus 2.0 × 10-4 [62]
Bubo virginianus B. scandiacus 1.0 × 10-5 [63] Pygoscelis antarcticus P. papua 1.4 × 10-5 [49]
Bucephala clangula B. islandica 5.1 × 10-5 [64] Recurvirostra americana R. andina 6.9 × 10-3 [65]
Calamospiza melanocorys Chondestes grammacus 1.6 × 10-2 [53] Rhea pennata R. americana 9.5 × 10-3 [66]
Calcarius pictus C. ornatus 6.9 × 10-3 [67] Rissa brevirostris R. tridactyla 2.8 × 20-3 [48]
Tringa semipalmata T. flavipes 2.2 × 10-5 [47] Spheniscus demersus S. magellanicus 9.5 × 10-3 [49]
Centrocercus minimus C. urophasianus 1.6 × 10-2 [68] Sialia currucoides S. mexicana 2.3 × 10-4 [69]
Chlidonias leucopterus C. niger 1.6 × 10-2 [46] Sialia sialis S. mexicana 4.5 × 10-5 [69]
Cyanocitta cristata C. stelleri 5.1 × 10-5 [70] Spizella breweri S. passerina 1.2 × 10-6 [53]
Dendragapus fuliginosus D. obscurus 5.0 × 10-2 [71] Spizella pallida S. breweri 7.7 × 10-5 [53]
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus E. robustus 2.7 × 10-2 [49] Stercorarius parasiticus S. longicaudus 6.4 × 10-6 [72]
Euphagus carolinus E. cyanocephalus 1.9 × 10-3 [73] Hydroprogne caspia Gelochelidonnilotica 6.4 × 10-6 [46]
Fratercula arctica F. corniculata 6.1 × 10-4 [48] Thalasseus sandvicensis T. elegans 5.1 × 10-5 [46]
Cerorhinca monocerata Fratercula cirrhata 3.0 × 10-3 [48] Sternula antillarum S. superciliaris 9.5 × 10-3 [46]
Tringa brevipes T. incana 2.0 × 10-2 [47] Sturnella neglecta S. magna 2.3 × 10-4 [55]
Himantopus himantopus Hi. leucocephalus 3.0 × 10-3 [65] Sturnia malabarica Temenuchus pagodarum 1.0 × 10-2 [52]
Himantopus melanurus Hi. mexicanus 9.5 × 10-3 [65] Synthliboramphus antiquus S. wumizusume 2.7 × 10-2 [48]
Icterus galbula I. bullockii 4.3 × 10-4 [74] Toxostoma rufum T. curvirostre 1.0 × 10-2 [52]
Jacana spinosa J. jacana 5.0 × 10-2 [75] Tringa glareola T. totanus 2.2 × 10-5 [47]
Lagopus muta L. lagopus 1.2 × 10-6 [76] Tringa melanoleuca T. nebularia 2.3 × 10-4 [47]
Limnodromus griseus L. scolopaceus 1.9 × 10-3 [77] Uria aalge U. lomvia 2.3 × 10-4 [48]
  1. a- genus comprising few species.