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Table 2 Relative and total amounts of n-alkanes (straight chain saturated hydrocarbons) and n-alkenes (straight chain unsaturated hydrocarbons) in the investigated orchid species. Compounds are ordered in retention times. Total amounts are given in ng per single labellum

From: Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators

  Orchis italica Orchis provincialis Orchis mascula Orchis quadripunct. Orchis anthropoph. Serapias lingua Serapias cordigera Serapias parviflora Ophrys sphegodes Anacamptis papilionacea
Alkane           
Heneicosane (C21) 1.71 0.70 0.66 1.19 1.58 1.20 14.58 0.72 5.27 2.04
Docosane (C22) 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.75 0.29 1.19 0.00 1.76 0.20
Tricosane (C23) 37.05 0.85 5.53 14.86 10.82 6.13 8.01 1.47 28.41 8.35
Tetracosane (C24) 1.98 0.47 1.72 2.21 0.92 1.63 0.58 1.38 2.51 0.49
Pentacosane (C25) 16.88 12.07 39.38 29.62 24.47 14.28 2.72 16.84 11.08 15.79
Hexacosane (C26) 1.64 5.41 2.73 2.63 1.25 2.20 0.26 3.54 0.72 0.63
Heptacosane (C27) 20.65 46.00 35.32 32.51 26.92 15.00 2.62 33.73 5.19 22.07
Octacosane (C28) 1.38 6.54 1.40 2.66 0.83 0.90 0.35 3.86 0.42 1.02
Nonacosane (C29) 8.14 27.97 12.42 9.21 8.00 3.76 1.96 31.73 2.12 12.89
Sum (%) 90.22 100.00 99.17 95.26 75.54 45.38 32.27 93.29 57.49 63.49
Total amount (ng) 266.78 123.80 206.31 119.22 118.68 834.06 1210.49 147.82 513.69 418.86
Alkene           
7-Heneicosene 0.00 0.00 0.46 0.00 0.00 0.54 28.43 0.00 0.13 0.35
11-Tricosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16
9-Tricosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.26 1.59 2.41 0.00 1.15 0.63
7-Tricosene 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.04 2.89 29.03 0.00 0.90 1.02
11-Pentacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.43 0.45 0.00 0.00 3.02
9-Pentacosene 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.50 0.00 0.83 0.00 13.06 0.34
7-Pentacosene 0.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.38 13.07 5.31 0.00 2.11 0.42
5-Pentacosene 5.44 0.00 0.00 0.51 1.11 0.99 0.67 0.00 0.44 10.71
11-Heptacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.38 0.14 0.00 6.58 8.89
9-Heptacosene 0.78 0.00 0.19 1.62 7.68 6.17 0.00 0.56 10.00 0.86
7-Heptacosene 0.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.08 9.02 0.30 1.11 1.15 0.76
5-Heptacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
11-Nonacosene 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.83 7.95
9-Nonacosene 0.46 0.00 0.19 1.17 1.41 8.18 0.10 3.31 3.18 0.85
7-Nonacosene 0.50 0.00 0.00 1.44 0.00 7.37 0.07 1.74 0.00 0.55
5-Nonacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sum (%) 9.78 0.00 0.83 4.74 24.46 54.62 67.73 6.71 42.51 36.51
Total amount (ng) 28.93 0.00 1.73 5.94 38.44 1003.87 2540.77 10.64 379.86 240.84
  Anacamptis morio Nigritella rhellicani Gymnadenia conopsea Gymnadenia odoratissima Dactylorhiza maculata Himantogl. hircinum Platanthera bifolia Neotinea ustuata Neotinea lactea  
Alkane           
Heneicosane (C21) 0.21 1.98 0.00 10.54 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.55 0.00  
Docosane (C22) 0.15 0.00 0.00 1.61 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.35 0.00  
Tricosane (C23) 10.88 13.21 6.42 39.17 4.03 2.40 1.46 10.34 5.67  
Tetracosane (C24) 3.43 2.33 0.00 1.70 0.00 0.93 1.06 1.45 0.00  
Pentacosane (C25) 38.64 15.57 9.35 14.41 5.35 33.99 18.14 10.52 14.06  
Hexacosane (C26) 3.17 0.00 0.00 1.39 0.00 2.54 2.95 1.59 6.11  
Heptacosane (C27) 28.30 13.44 0.00 0.00 4.78 41.16 31.79 15.13 39.84  
Octacosane (C28) 1.89 0.00 3.38 0.00 2.97 1.29 6.11 1.35 9.75  
Nonacosane (C29) 9.91 4.53 25.44 0.00 33.56 13.23 23.23 7.26 24.56  
Sum (%) 96.58 51.06 44.59 68.82 50.69 96.14 84.74 48.54 100.00  
Total amount (ng) 299.09 25.20 11.80 30.87 12.89 388.24 15.96 43.35 8.87  
Alkene           
7-Heneicosene 0.98 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00  
11-Tricosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 42.69 0.00  
9-Tricosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00  
7-Tricosene 1.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.47 0.00  
11-Pentacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.42 0.00  
9-Pentacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00  
7-Pentacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.65 0.00 0.00 0.00  
5-Pentacosene 1.00 4.15 17.40 12.32 13.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  
11-Heptacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  
9-Heptacosene 0.00 5.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.52 1.20 0.00 0.00  
7-Heptacosene 0.00 26.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.88 0.00 0.00 0.00  
5-Heptacosene 0.00 0.00 33.35 15.69 35.46 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  
11-Nonacosene 0.00 0.00 4.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.92 0.00  
9-Nonacosene 0.00 6.54 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 9.63 0.00 0.00  
7-Nonacosene 0.00 6.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 4.43 1.97 0.00  
5-Nonacosene 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  
Sum (%) 3.42 48.94 55.41 31.18 49.31 3.86 15.26 51.46 0.00  
Total amount (ng) 10.60 24.15 14.67 13.99 12.54 15.58 2.87 45.96 0.00