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Table 3 χ2-test of geographical association of clades and inferences of biological causes for association for the different clades for a) 16S rDNA and b) ITS-1. The inferences were obtained following the newest version of the inference key given in Templeton (1998).

From: Evidence for survival of Pleistocene climatic changes in Northern refugia by the land snail Trochoidea geyeri (Soós 1926) (Helicellinae, Stylommatophora)

a)    
Clade χ2 p-value   Inference
Haplotypes nested in 1–8 9.000 0.008 Long distance colonisation of MVR from MVS
Haplotypes nested in 1–10 12.000 0.002 Past fragmentation between PTV and CDE
Clades nested in 2–3 68.000 <0.001 Long distance colonization of STB from Albion area
Clades nested in 2–4 9.000 0.008 Past fragmentation between PTV and STV
Clades nested in 2–7 11.700 0.043 Restricted gene-flow with isolation by distance between populations on the Causse de Larzac
Clades nested in 2–8 15.000 <0.001 Long distance colonisation of MUN from SHZ
Clades nested in 3–2 46.384 <0.001 Continuous range expansion with subsequent fragmentation in the Albion area
Clades nested in 3–3 3.111 0.308 No geographical association of clades
Clades nested in 3–4 20.000 <0.001 Range expansion of southern German populations to ESS, but impossible to discriminate between contiguous range expansion and long distance dispersal
Clades nested in 4–1 42.000 <0.001 Past fragmentation between LUB and all other Provence populations, confirmed by longer than average mutational connection
Clades nested in 4–2 34.000 <0.001 Range expansion, but impossible to discriminate between contiguous range expansion and long distance dispersal from LAR to northern areas
Clades in entire cladogram 77.000 <0.001 Range expansion from Provence to Causse de Larzac
b)    
Clade χ2 p-value   Inference
Haplotypes nested in 1–2 46.000 <0.001 Isolation by distance among Provence populations except LUB
Haplotypes nested in 1–4 20.000 <0.001 Inadequate sampling design to discriminate between fragmentation, range expansion or isolation by distance among German populations
Clades nested in 2–1 52.000 <0.001 Past fragmentation of LUB from the rest of the Provence populations
Clades nested in 2–2 34.000 <0.000 Range expansion from the Causse de Larzac to Germany
Total cladogram 86.000 <0.001 Contiguous range expansion from Provence to the Causse de Larzac