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Table 3 Effects of modification of bird microbiome on uropygial gland volume and composition of secretions

From: Uropygial gland size and composition varies according to experimentally modified microbiome in Great tits

a Uropygial gland volume      
    Estimate ± SE df F P
  Year   0.20 ± 0.04 1,52 29.6 <0.001
  Wing length   0.53 ± 0.12 1,36 19.6 <0.001
  Treatment Nisin −0.05 ± 0.06 2,52 1.2 0.31
   TSB −0.09 ± 0.06    
  Sex   0.49 ± 0.08 1,36 41.2 <0.001
  Treatment × Sex Nisin 0.20 ± 0.09 2,36 4.2 0.018
   TSB 0.24 ± 0.09    
b Uropygial gland composition - PC1     
    Estimate ± SE df F P
  Treatment Nisin 0.04 ± 0.14 2,28 3.7 0.033
   TSB −0.30 ± 0.15    
  Sex   0.72 ± 0.12 1,22 38.6 <0.001
c Uropygial gland composition - PC2     
    Estimate ± SE df F P
  Date   0.05 ± 0.02 1,19 5.7 0.021
  Treatment Nisin 2.29 ± 0.58 2,28 8.8 <0.001
   TSB 1.97 ± 0.60    
  Sex   −2.89 ± 0.69 1,19 17.3 <0.001
  Treatment × Sex Nisin 2.36 ± 0.91 2,19 5.2 0.01
   TSB 2.81 ± 0.92    
d Uropygial gland composition - PC3     
    Estimate ± SE df F P
  Sex   −1.34 ± 0.35 1,22 39.5 <0.001
  1. The compounds produced and their contribution to the principal components are given in Table 1. The table present final models after backward selection. Treatment effects estimates compared to the control are shown.