Results of typical simulations with an initial population composed of P. lessonae frogs and 10 mutation-free P. esculentus . In the simulation we assume a “lessonae-like preference” for P. esculentus and P. lessonae females. σ=0.4, δ
=0.4, μ=10-4. R, R
d, and R
are the number of R genomes in the P. esculentus population with three different levels of mutation accumulations.