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Table 2 Review of empirical evidence that disassortative mating contributes to the maintenance of genetic variation in kin recognition cues

From: Crozier’s paradox revisited: maintenance of genetic recognition systems by disassortative mating

Taxon Cue used to facilitate assortative cooperation Inbreeding avoidance/disassortative mating? Cue used in mating choice Potential for resolution of Crozier’s paradox by disassortative mating References
Slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum TgrB1 and TgrC1 surface proteins Yes mat locus No Benabentos et al. 2009 [13], Bloomfield et al. 2010 [49], Hirose et al. 2011 [46]
Fungi Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus heterothallicus, Sordaria brevicolus MAT loci Yes MAT loci (lipopeptide pheromones) Yes Shiu and Glass 1999 [51], Aanen et al. 2008 [9], Hall et al. 2010 [52]
Fungi, other species Other heterokaryon incompatibility loci Yes MAT loci (lipopeptide pheromones) Possibly Shiu and Glass 1999 [51], Aanen et al. 2008 [9], Hall et al. 2010 [52]
Colonial ascidians Botryllus schlosseri and Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus Histocompatibility locus A No n/a No Grosberg and Quinn 1986, Grosberg and Hart 2000 [39], Rosengarten and Nicotra 2011 [14]
German cockroach Blattella germanica CHCs Yes CHCs Yes Lihoreau et al. 2007 [59]; 2008 [60]; Lihoreau and Rivault 2008 [61]; 2010 [62]
Halictid bee Lasioglossum zephyrum Lactones and/or CHCs Yes Lactones and/or CHCs Possibly Greenberg 1979 [72], Smith 1983 [68], Smith and Wenzel 1988 [73]
Social wasps Polistes dominulus and P. fuscatus CHCs Yes Unknown Possibly Ryan and Gamboa 1986 [76], Gamboa 2004 [74], Liebert et al. 2010 [77]
Social wasp Ropalidia marginata CHCs No n/a No Shilpa et al. 2010 [78]
Bumble bees Bombus spp. Probably CHCs In some species Unknown Possibly Foster 1992 [69], Whitehorn et al. 2009 [79], Martin et al. 2010 [75]
Ants Leptothorax gredleri and Linepithema humile CHCs Yes Probably CHCs Possibly Keller and Passera 1993 [70], Oppelt et al. 2008 [71], van Zweden and d’Ettorre 2010 [12]
Tuatara Sphenodon punctatus MHC Yes MHC Weak Miller et al. 2009 [99]
Zebrafish Danio rerio Odour cues Yes MHC-derived odours Possibly Gerlach and Lysiak 2006 [88], Gerlach et al. 2008 [89]
Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus MHC-derived odours Yes MHC-derived odours Yes Olsén et al. 1998 [95], Skarstein et al. 2005 [98]
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar MHC-derived odours Yes MHC-derived odours Yes Landry et al. 2001 [90], Rajakaruna et al. 2006 [96]
Long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus Contact calls Yes Unknown Possibly Hatchwell et al. 2000 [111], Sharp et al. 2005 [109]
Mouse Mus musculus MHC-derived odours Yes MHC-derived odours Yes Yamazaki et al. 1976 [84], 1988 [85], 2000 [83], Potts et al. 1991 [87], Manning et al. 1992 [82]
Naked mole rat Heterocephalus glaber Odour cues Yes Odour cues Possibly Clarke and Faulkes 1999 [114]
Mandrill Mandrillus sphinx Odour cues Yes MHC-derived odours Possibly Charpentier et al. 2007 [11], Setchell et al. 2010 [116], 2011 [117]
Human Homo sapiens Facial cues Yes Facial cues Yes DeBruine 2005 [122], Bailenson et al. 2008, DeBruine et al. 2008 [119], Krupp et al. 2008 [119], Nojo et al. 2011 [123]
  1. We list cases in which a cue used to facilitate assortative cooperation has been identified, state whether inbreeding avoidance or disassortative mating has been reported and examine whether the cues used in social and mate choice contexts are the same, potentially resolving Crozier’s paradox. CHCs: cuticular hydrocarbons, MHC: major histocompatibility complex.