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Table 2 Examples of inactivating mutations in enamel matrix protein genes among edentulous and enamelless amniotes with genome sequences

From: Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

Taxon Inactivating mutations
  ENAM AMBN AMEL
Cryptodira None None Possible shared frameshift mutations in exon 2 (see AF9)
Chrysemys AF1 Insertions: 65, 271, 411, 485, 994-1138 (Cry), 2526-2529, 2559-2571, 3268 AF3 Insertions: 956-957, 972, 1051-1052 AF7 Deletion: 106
AF1 Deletions: 588, 1264-1276, 3325-3343 AF3 Deletions: 497-498, 605-611, 794-804, 984-985  
Pelodiscus Gene not recovered Gene not recovered AF7 Deletions: 122-125, 208, 271, 276
Neognathae AF1 Insertions: 1985-1989, 2143-2144, AF3 Deletion: 515-524 AF7 Deletions: 134 (with subsequent deletion of one additional bp in Taeniopygia), 242, 709-710
AF1 Deletions: 2634-2637, 3353-3758
Galloanserae AF1 Deletion: 1189-1192 None AF7 Deletions: 173-174, 282-289
Anas AF1 Insertions: 552-562, 2031-2040 AF3 Deletions: 216-217, 226, 455, 727-728 AF7 Insertions: 152, 181
AF1 Deletions: 2626-2627 AF7 Deletion: 88-94
Gallus + Meleagris AF1 Insertion: 2654 None AF7 Insertion: 484
AF1 Deletion: 3263-3267
Gallus AF1 Insertions: 512, 930-931 AF3 Insertions: 225, 230 AF7 Deletion: 275-276
AF1 Deletions: 126-127, 585-595
Meleagris AF1 Insertion: 2438-2441 Gene not recovered AF7 Deletion: 359
Taeniopygia + Melopsittacus AF1 Deletion: 2958 None None
Taeniopygia AF1 Deletion: 3318 AF3 Deletions: 578, 612-613 AF7 Deletions: 378, 407-417
Melopsittacus AF1 Insertions: 231, 2239 AF3 Stop codon: 708-710 AF7 Insertion: 105
AF1 Deletions: 432-433, 452-453, 504-505 AF7 Deletions: 91–94, 387
Dasypus See Meredith et al. [2] None AF11 Deletion: 3’ end of intron 6, including the acceptor splice site, and the first 14 bp of exon 7 (665–678), which includes the last amino acid and the stop codon
Choloepus See Meredith et al. [2] Splice site mutation: AG to AT at intron 2 acceptor site (gb|ti|1338556193) AF11 Deletions: 45–55, 600
AF11 Initiation codon mutation: ATG to ACG (13–15)
AF11 Stop codon: 356-358
Orycteropus See Meredith et al. [2] AF5 Deletions: 415-651 (all of exon 6), 1241-1253 AF11 Stop codons: 239–241, 299-301
   AF5 Stop codon: 388-390  
  1. Numbers correspond to sequence alignment positions in Additional files. Additional file 1 = AF1; Additional file 3 = AF3; Additional file 5 = AF5; Additional file 7 = AF7; Additional file 9 = AF9; Additional file 11 = AF11. Cry = Cry SINE [47].