Mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline plots for the three mtDNA clades. (a) Mismatch distribution between mtDNA haplotypes from three major mtDNA clades. Dashed lines connect observed values and solid lines show the expected distribution under a demographic expansion model. (b) Bayesian skyline plots for the three main clades, showing changes in effective population size (N
m; on a log10 scale) over time (in years). The thick solid line depicts the median estimate, while dotted lines represent the 95% highest posterior density intervals.