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Table 2 Node age estimates (Ma)

From: A multi-calibrated mitochondrial phylogeny of extant Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and the importance of the fossil record to systematics

Right: nodes below: calibrations Ruminantia (tree root) Moschidae + Bovidae Cervidae stem Bovidae crown Bovini + Pseudoryx Caprini + Pantholops Bovini crown Hippotragini + Alcelaphini Tragelaphini crown Reduncini crown Hippotragini crown Alcelaphini crown T. strepsicerosstem T. eurycerosstem K. ellip.-lechecrown A. buselaphuscrown Connochaetescrown
Fossil age (Ma) (constrained to 65–25) 23 16.6 ca.18 10.2 8.9 ca.8.8 6.4 ca.5.7 5.1 3.6 ca.5 3.4 3.4 2 0.6 1.15
Probability Median Age (Ma) 45 25.5 21.8 18 12.8 10.8 9 8.8 5.7 6 4.8 5.7 3.9 3.9 2.5 0.8 1.6
Moschidae stem 53.2 25.2 28 23.7 18.6 15.6 17.6 17.8 13.6 13.7 11.4 11 7.8 4.5 6.7 3.7 1.8
Cervidae stem 40.4 19.3 20.6 18.1 14.2 12 13.4 13.6 10.3 10.3 8.7 8.4 6 3.5 5.1 2.8 1.4
Bovidae crown 39.8 19 19.6 17.8 14 11.7 13.3 13.4 10.3 10.2 8.6 8.3 5.9 3.4 5 2.8 1.4
Bovini stem 34.98 16.7 17.2 15.7 12.3 10.3 11.7 11.8 9 8.9 7.5 7.3 5.2 3 4.4 2.4 1.2
Caprini stem 35.4 16.9 19.3 15.9 12.4 10.5 11.7 11.9 9.1 9.1 7.7 7.4 5.2 3 4.5 2.5 1.2
Bovini crown 27.8 13.2 13.6 12.4 9.7 8.2 9.2 9.3 7.1 7.1 6 5.8 4.1 2.4 3.5 1.9 1
Hippotragini stem 28.1 13.3 13.7 12.4 9.7 8.2 9.2 9.4 7.2 7.1 6 5.8 4.1 2.4 3.5 2 0.95
Tragelaphini crown 26 11.8 12.1 11.1 8.7 7.3 8.2 8.3 6.2 6.4 5.3 5.2 3.7 2.1 3.1 1.7 0.9
Reduncini crown 26.2 12.1 12.4 11.3 8.9 7.4 8.4 8.5 6.5 6.6 5.5 5.3 3.8 2.2 3.2 1.8 0.9
Hippotragini crown 26.8 12.4 14.3 11.7 9.2 7.7 8.7 8.9 6.7 6.7 5.5 5.5 3.9 2.2 3.3 1.8 0.9
Alcelaphini crown 27.9 13.3 13.6 12.4 9.8 8.2 9.2 9.3 7.2 7.1 6 5.7 4.2 2.4 3.5 1.9 1
T. strepsiceros stem 27.1 12.8 13.2 12 9.4 7.9 8.9 9 6.9 6.9 5.8 5.6 4 2.3 3.4 1.9 0.9
T. euryceros stem 44 20.9 21.6 19.6 15.4 13 14.5 14.9 11.2 11.2 9.5 9.2 6.5 3.8 5.5 3.1 1.5
K. ellips.-leche crown 26.1 11.9 13.7 11.2 8.8 7.4 8.3 8.4 6.5 6.3 5.4 5.2 3.7 2.2 2.8 1.7 0.9
A. buselaphus crown 25.7 11.3 11.6 10.6 8.3 7 7.8 8 6.1 6.1 5.1 4.8 3.5 2 3 1.2 0.8
Connochaetes crown 41.9 20 20.5 18.7 14.6 12.3 13.8 14.1 10.7 10.7 9 8.7 6.2 3.6 5.3 2.9 1.5
All 16 calibrations 33.7 17.9 18.4 16.2 11.8 10.1 11 11.5 7.4 7.1 6.6 6.3 4.4 3.3 2.9 1.3 1.3
Mean 33.2 15.8 16.7 14.8 11.5 9.7 10.9 11.1 8.4 8.3 7.0 6.8 4.8 2.8 4.0 2.2 1.2
Max 53.2 28 25.2 23.7 18.6 17.6 13.6 4.5 7.8 13.7 6.7 17.8 11.4 11 1.8 3.7 15.6
Min 25.7 11.6 11.3 10.6 8.3 7.8 6.1 2 3.5 6.1 2.8 8 5.1 4.8 0.8 1.2 7
  1. Results of the sixteen single-calibration analyses and the one analysis using all 16 calibrations. For each analysis (row), bold text indicates the node(s) used as a calibration point.