Spatial autocorrelation of average Kinship coefficients ( F
) against the natural logarithm of spatial distance inside four estuaries in Panama. The Kinship-curve for the whole estuary is represented in black. Where GENELAND detected internal substructure, Kinship-curves for each genetic pool were calculated when N > 50 (white and grey curves). Dashed lines represent a 95% confidence interval around the hypothesis of no genetic structure for the whole estuary based on 10,000 permutations. We generated uneven lags with constant number of individuals inside distance classes (N > 100) with > 90% of pairwise relationships among nearest neighbors included within the first interval.