Chronogram for Trichosanthes and outgroups obtained from the same sequence data as used for Figure1, but modeled under a relaxed molecular clock. Node heights represent mean ages and bars the 95% highest posterior density intervals for nodes that have a posterior probability of ≥ 0.95. Fossil constraints used were: (A) Cucurbitaceae seeds from the London Clay (see Material and Methods ), (B) Trichosanthes seeds from Eocene sediments in Bulgaria  and Oligocene sediments in West Siberia , and (C) Miocene leaves assigned to Marah. Inset B shows the Bulgarian seeds (, Figure thirteen) to the left and Middle Pliocene seeds from Poland (, Figures sixteen to seventeen) to the right: Inset C shows the Marah leaf (photos provided by M. Guilliams and D.M. Erwin, University of California, Berkeley).