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Table 1 Molecular phylogenetic analyses attempting to resolve the relationships among malaria parasites.

From: Phylogenomic analyses of malaria parasites and evolution of their exported proteins

Reference Gene* Outgroup taxa Number of ingroup taxa Laverania + avian malaria parasites
Waters et al. 1991 [53] SSU rRNA Acanthamoeba castellani 10 Yes
Escalante and Ayala 1994 [3] SSU rRNA Theileria annulata
Babesia bovis
Sarcocystis fusiformis
11 No
Escalante and Ayala 1995 [56] SSU rRNA Colpidium campylum
Euplotes aediculatus
Glaucoma chattoni
Opisthonecta henneguyi
Paramecium tetraurelia
5 Yes
Qari et al. 1996
SSU rRNA Toxoplasma gondii,
Paramecium tetraurelia
13 No
Escalante et al. 1998 [69] Cyt b Toxoplasma gondii 17 No
Rathore et al. 2001 [70] SSU rRNA Toxoplasma gondii 8 Yes
  Cyt b Toxoplasma gondii 8 No
  ClpC Toxoplasma gondii 9 No
Perkins and Schall 2002 [58] Cyt b Theileria annulata
Leucocytozoon dubreuli
Leucocytozoon simondi
52 No
Kissinger et al. 2002 [57] SSU rRNA Theileria annulata
Babesia equis
10 Yes
Leclerc et al. 2004
SSU rRNA Toxoplasma gondii
Sarcocystis fusiformis
Babesia bovis
21 No
Roy and Irimia 2008
SSU rRNA Leucocytozoon caulleryi
Leucocytozoon sabrazesi
18 No
Martinsen et al. 2008 [61] Cyt b, Cox I, ClpC, ASL (concatenated) Leucocytozoon spp. 57 No
Ollomo et al. 2009 [4] Cyt b, Cox I, Cox III (concatenated) Leucocytozoon caulleryi 17 No
Krief et al. 2010 [7] Dhfr-ts, Msp2 (concatenated) Leucocytozoon sabrazesi 42 No
Silva et al. 2010 [53] 29 proteins
Theileria annulata
Theileria annulata
8 No
  1. Note that only analyses are listed that included non-Plasmodium species as an outgroup taxa
  2. *Abbreviations: SSU rRNA, 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA; Cyt b, cytochrome b; ClpC, caseinolytic protease C; Cox I and III, cytochrome oxidase I and III; ASL, adenylosuccinate lyase; Dhfr-ts, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase; Msp2, merozoite surface protein 2.