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Table 4 Comparison of Pareto fits to the distribution of small effects on fitness for three different fitness landscapes

From: Phenotypic effect of mutations in evolving populations of RNA molecules

  Pareto[k, a] % of mutations
B k = 0.0197 ± 0.0003 89.9
S a = 0.993 ± 0.020 R2 = 0.997
B k = 0.0200 ± 0.0003 92.2
S + Q a = 0.976 ± 0.017 R2 = 0.998
B k = 0.0198 ± 0.0004 94.2
S + E a = 1.170 ± 0.034 R2 = 0.995
D k = 0.0190 ± 0.0010 63.5
S a = 0.391 ± 0.016 R2 = 0.984
D k = 0.0219 ± 0.0016 75.2
S + Q a = 0.529 ± 0.034 R2 = 0.963
D k = 0.0197 ± 0.0014 81.0
S + E a = 0.596 ± 0.036 R2 = 0.965
  1. The Pareto probability distribution function fits the numerically obtained distributions of small effects well when selection of a specific 10 nt sequence or selection of low-energy folds occurs simultaneously to selection of a target secondary structure. Results shown as in Table 3. S indicates selection solely on structure (according to the definition given in Eq. (1)); S + Q stands for populations with selection on structure and sequence (definition given in Eq. (8)); S + E represents populations with selection on structure and energy (following Eq. (9)). Distributions are measured for populations optimized at a value of the mutation rate μ = 0.003.