Gene expression in male accessory glands. Relative expression of leukocyte-antigen-related-like, CG1486, ciao-1, CG32432, US3 and US7 transcripts in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri relative to body carcasses. The y-axis, drawn through 1, corresponds to the expression level in the body carcass (control tissue) of the respective life cycle stage, these being late male pupae, males inside nests and males outside nests. Shown are fold change expression ± SEM for five biological replicates. Statistically significant differences (REST randomization significance test, P < 0.05) are indicated by asterisks.