9.0) optimal pH, more than two pH units higher than that of vertebrate AANATs. Conclusions The substrate selectivity profiles of bfAANATα and δ' are relatively broad, including alkylamines, arylalkylamines and diamines, in contrast to vertebrate forms, which selectively acetylate serotonin and other arylalkylamines. Based on these features, it appears that amphioxus AANATs could play several roles, including detoxification and biogenic amine inactivation. The presence of seven AANATs in amphioxus genome supports the view that arylalkylamine and polyamine acetylation is important to the biology of this organism and that these genes evolved in response to specific pressures related to requirements for amine acetylation."/>
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Figure 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 1

From: Evolution of AANAT: expansion of the gene family in the cephalochordate amphioxus

Figure 1

Multiple alignment of sequences. Alignment of AANAT sequences from human (h), ovine (o) and yeast (sc), compared with the newly identified bfAANATs. Sequences have been aligned using CLUSTALW [51], and then manually adjusted. Residues inversely highlighted in black are identical; residues highlighted in grey are similar among compared sequences. Motifs conserved in vertebrate AANATs and discussed in the text are identified with labeled red boxes. Individual residues discussed in the text are marked with red symbols. Red triangle: conserved lysine; red dots: three residues lacking in all non-vertebrate AANAT homologs; red asterisks: paired histidines involved in catalysis. See Additional file 2 for amphioxus sequence coordinates and Additional file 7 for alignment of AANAT sequences from more species.

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