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  1. The big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) from east Asia is the sole living representative of a poorly-studied turtle lineage (Platysternidae). It has no close living relatives, and its phylogenetic posit...

    Authors: James F Parham, Chris R Feldman and Jeffrey L Boore
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:11
  2. The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. ...

    Authors: Fabio S Raposo do Amaral, Matthew J Miller, Luís Fábio Silveira, Eldredge Bermingham and Anita Wajntal
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:10
  3. The recently emerged protein interaction network paradigm can provide novel and important insights into the innerworkings of a cell. Yet, the heavy burden of both false positive and false negative protein-prot...

    Authors: Stefan Wuchty, Albert-Laszlo Barabási and Michael T Ferdig
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:8
  4. The rate of molecular evolution varies widely between proteins, both within and among lineages. To what extent is this variation influenced by genome-wide, lineage-specific effects? To answer this question, we...

    Authors: Joël Savard, Diethard Tautz and Martin J Lercher
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:7
  5. Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of ...

    Authors: Karolina L Tkaczuk, Agnieszka Obarska and Janusz M Bujnicki
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:6
  6. Gene losses played a role which may have been as important as gene and genome duplications and rearrangements, in modelling today species' genomes from a common ancestral set of genes. The set and diversity of...

    Authors: Etienne GJ Danchin, Philippe Gouret and Pierre Pontarotti
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:5
  7. Integrons are genetic elements capable of the acquisition, rearrangement and expression of genes contained in gene cassettes. Gene cassettes generally consist of a promoterless gene associated with a recombina...

    Authors: Yan Boucher, Camilla L Nesbø, Michael J Joss, Andrew Robinson, Bridget C Mabbutt, Michael R Gillings, W Ford Doolittle and HW Stokes
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:3
  8. Genomic islands are regions of bacterial genomes that have been acquired by horizontal transfer and often contain blocks of genes that function together for specific processes. Recently, it has become clear th...

    Authors: James W Wilson and Cheryl A Nickerson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:2
  9. Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes,...

    Authors: Christopher L Parkinson, Jeffrey P Mower, Yin-Long Qiu, Andrew J Shirk, Keming Song, Nelson D Young, Claude W dePamphilis and Jeffrey D Palmer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:73
  10. Calcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients...

    Authors: Steffen Abel, Tatyana Savchenko and Maggie Levy
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:72
  11. Evolutionary analyses of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) have yielded important and at times provocative results. One particularly troublesome outcome is the consistent inference of independent...

    Authors: John W Stiller and Leslie Harrell
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:71
  12. Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most...

    Authors: Carles Lalueza-Fox, Jose Castresana, Lourdes Sampietro, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Josep Antoni Alcover and Jaume Bertranpetit
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:70
  13. Merlin, the product of the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene, belongs to the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) subgroup of the protein 4.1 superfamily, which links cell surface glycoproteins to the ac...

    Authors: Kseniya Golovnina, Alexander Blinov, Elena M Akhmametyeva, Leonid V Omelyanchuk and Long-Sheng Chang
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:69
  14. Group I introns have spread into over 90 different sites in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with greater than 1700 introns reported in these genes. These ribozymes generally spread through endonuclease-mediated i...

    Authors: Debashish Bhattacharya, Valérie Reeb, Dawn M Simon and François Lutzoni
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:68
  15. In Drosophila melanogaster the Enhancer of split-Complex [E(spl)-C] consists of seven highly related genes encoding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) repressors and intermingled, four genes that belong to the Bearded...

    Authors: Rebekka Schlatter and Dieter Maier
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:67
  16. Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffold...

    Authors: Annkatrin Rose, Shannon J Schraegle, Eric A Stahlberg and Iris Meier
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:66
  17. Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon i...

    Authors: Sofia Berlin and Nick GC Smith
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:65
  18. Molecular phylogenetic methods are based on alignments of nucleic or peptidic sequences. The tremendous increase in molecular data permits phylogenetic analyses of very long sequences and of many species, but ...

    Authors: Charles Chapus, Christine Dufraigne, Scott Edwards, Alain Giron, Bernard Fertil and Patrick Deschavanne
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:63
  19. Prior to the sequencing of the human genome it was typically assumed that, tandem duplication aside, gene order is for the most part random. Numerous observers, however, highlighted instances in which a ligand...

    Authors: Laurence D Hurst and Martin J Lercher
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:62
  20. Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation), neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation) or both? Although simu...

    Authors: Corinne Vacher, Sam P Brown and Michael E Hochberg
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:60
  21. Costly structures need to represent an adaptive advantage in order to be maintained over evolutionary times. Contrary to many other conspicuous shell ornamentations of gastropods, the haired shells of several ...

    Authors: Markus Pfenninger, Magda Hrabáková, Dirk Steinke and Aline Dèpraz
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:59
  22. Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans belong to a distinct bacterial clade but have remarkably different phenotypes. T. thermophilus is a thermophile, which is relatively sensitive to ionizing radiatio...

    Authors: Marina V Omelchenko, Yuri I Wolf, Elena K Gaidamakova, Vera Y Matrosova, Alexander Vasilenko, Min Zhai, Michael J Daly, Eugene V Koonin and Kira S Makarova
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:57
  23. Plastid-bearing cryptophytes like Cryptomonas contain four genomes in a cell, the nucleus, the nucleomorph, the plastid genome and the mitochondrial genome. Comparative phylogenetic analyses encompassing DNA sequ...

    Authors: Kerstin Hoef-Emden, Hoang-Dung Tran and Michael Melkonian
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:56
  24. Comparative genomics has provided valuable insights into the nature of gene sequence variation and chromosomal organization of closely related bacterial species. However, questions about the biological signifi...

    Authors: Gabriela Guerrero, Humberto Peralta, Alejandro Aguilar, Rafael Díaz, Miguel Angel Villalobos, Arturo Medrano-Soto and Jaime Mora
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:55
  25. HIV-1 is a retrovirus with high rate of recombination. Increasing experimental studies in vitro indicated that local hairpin structure of RNA was associated with recombination by favoring RT pausing and promoting...

    Authors: Chi-Yu Zhang, Ji-Fu Wei and Shao-Heng He
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:53
  26. The advent of live-attenuated vaccines against measles virus during the 1960'ies changed the circulation dynamics of the virus. Earlier the virus was indigenous to countries worldwide, but now it is mediated b...

    Authors: Mikkel H Schierup, Carl H Mordhorst, Claude P Muller and Laurids S Christensen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:52
  27. Alu elements are Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) in primate genomes that have proven useful as markers for studying genome evolution, population biology and phylogenetics. Most of these applications, however,...

    Authors: David A Ray and Mark A Batzer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:51
  28. Probabilistic methods have progressively supplanted the Maximum Parsimony (MP) method for inferring phylogenetic trees. One of the major reasons for this shift was that MP is much more sensitive to the Long Br...

    Authors: Hervé Philippe, Yan Zhou, Henner Brinkmann, Nicolas Rodrigue and Frédéric Delsuc
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:50
  29. The modern wildherd of the tundra muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is native only to the New World (northern North America and Greenland), and its genetic diversity is notably low. However, like several other megafaunal...

    Authors: Ross DE MacPhee, Alexei N Tikhonov, Dick Mol and Alex D Greenwood
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:49
  30. Translation initiation in eukaryotes involves the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome which is controlled by the translation factor eIF4E. eIF4E binds to the 5'-m7Gppp cap-structure of mRNA. Three dimensional str...

    Authors: Bhavesh Joshi, Kibwe Lee, Dennis L Maeder and Rosemary Jagus
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:48
  31. We investigated genetic variation of a major histcompatibility complex (MHC) pseudogene (Anvi-DAB1) in the little greenbul (Andropadus virens) from four localities in Cameroon and one in Ivory Coast, West Africa....

    Authors: Andres Aguilar, Thomas B Smith and Robert K Wayne
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:47
  32. Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad). This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a...

    Authors: Anthony G Russell, Timothy E Shutt, Russell F Watkins and Michael W Gray
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:45
  33. A number of recent papers have cast doubt on the applicability of the quasispecies concept to virus evolution, and have argued that population genetics is a more appropriate framework to describe virus evoluti...

    Authors: Claus O Wilke
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:44
  34. The cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), catalyses the aromatisation of androgens to estrogens, a key mechanism in vertebrate reproductive physiology. A current evolutionary hypothesis suggests that CYP19 gene aros...

    Authors: L Filipe C Castro, Miguel M Santos and Maria A Reis-Henriques
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:43
  35. The genes for salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits have been evolving rapidly in ancestors of the house mouse Mus musculus, as evidenced both by recent and extensive gene duplication and by high ratio...

    Authors: Christina M Laukaitis, Stephen R Dlouhy, Richard D Emes, Chris P Ponting and Robert C Karn
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:40
  36. Rodent and primate pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene families have expanded independently from a common ancestor and are expressed virtually exclusively in placental trophoblasts. However, within each sp...

    Authors: Andrew S McLellan, Wolfgang Zimmermann and Tom Moore
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:39
  37. Internal reproductive organ size is an important determinant of male reproductive success. While the response of testis length to variation in the intensity of sperm competition is well documented across many ...

    Authors: David W Rogers, Tracey Chapman, Kevin Fowler and Andrew Pomiankowski
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:37
  38. The concept of a genomic core, defined as the set of genes ubiquitous in all genomes of a monophyletic group, has become crucial in comparative and evolutionary genomics. However, it is still a matter of debat...

    Authors: Céline Brochier, Patrick Forterre and Simonetta Gribaldo
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:36

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