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  1. Environmental conditions on Earth are repeated in non-random patterns that often coincide with species from different regions and time periods having consistent combinations of morphological, physiological and...

    Authors: Nicolás Pelegrin, Kirk O. Winemiller, Laurie J. Vitt, Daniel B. Fitzgerald and Eric R. Pianka

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. hes genes are chordate homologs of Drosophila genes, hairy and enhancer of split, which encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressor with a WRPW motif. Various developmental functions of hes g...

    Authors: Aya Kuretani, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Masanori Taira and Tatsuo Michiue

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Malte Petersen, David Armisén, Richard A. Gibbs, Lars Hering, Abderrahman Khila, Georg Mayer, Stephen Richards, Oliver Niehuis and Bernhard Misof

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:146

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2019 19:11

  4. Climate change models predict changes in the amount, frequency and seasonality of precipitation events, all of which have the potential to affect the structure and function of grassland ecosystems. While previ...

    Authors: Kirk L. Barnett, Scott N. Johnson, Sarah L. Facey, Eleanor V. J. Gibson-Forty, Raul Ochoa-Hueso and Sally A. Power

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. The earliest Miocene (Aquitanian) represents a crucial time interval in the evolution of European squamates (i.e., lizards and snakes), witnessing a high diversity of taxa, including an array of extinct forms ...

    Authors: Georgios L. Georgalis and Torsten M. Scheyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. In species showing partial migration, as is the case for many salmonid fishes, it is important to assess how anthropogenic pressure experienced by migrating individuals affects the total population. We focused...

    Authors: Eloïse Duval, Øystein Skaala, María Quintela, Geir Dahle, Aurélien Delaval, Vidar Wennevik, Kevin A. Glover and Michael M. Hansen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research

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  7. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are involved in many physiological functions of plant growth and development. Although an increasing number of MATE proteins have been identified, the un...

    Authors: Zhixuan Du, Qitao Su, Zheng Wu, Zhou Huang, Jianzhong Bao, Jianbin Li, Hang Tu, Chuihai Zeng, Junru Fu and Haohua He

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. When males are selective, they can either reject low-quality females or adjust their reproductive investment in response to traits that indicate female quality (e.g., body size or condition). According to the dif...

    Authors: Diego Solano-Brenes, Luiz Ernesto Costa-Schmidt, Maria Jose Albo and Glauco Machado

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research

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  9. The most severe form of human malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This unicellular organism is a member of a subgenus of Plasmodium called the Laverania that infects apes, with P. f...

    Authors: Mackensie R. Gross, Rosie Hsu and Kirk W. Deitsch

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the main causes of viral hepatitis and liver cancer. HBV integration is one of the key steps in the virus-promoted malignant transformation.

    Authors: Canbiao Wu, Xiaofang Guo, Mengyuan Li, Jingxian Shen, Xiayu Fu, Qingyu Xie, Zeliang Hou, Manman Zhai, Xiaofan Qiu, Zifeng Cui, Hongxian Xie, Pengmin Qin, Xuchu Weng, Zheng Hu and Jiuxing Liang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. Understanding how island ecosystems change across habitats is a major challenge in ecological conservation under the conditions of habitat degradation. According to a 2-year investigation on Dong Island of the...

    Authors: Yingcan Li, Zhiwen Chen, Chao Peng, Guangchuan Huang, Hongyu Niu and Hongmao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:137

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Placodontia is a Triassic sauropterygian reptile group characterized by flat and enlarged crushing teeth adapted to a durophagous diet. The enigmatic placodont Henodus chelyops has numerous autapomorphic characte...

    Authors: Yannick Pommery, Torsten M. Scheyer, James M. Neenan, Tobias Reich, Vincent Fernandez, Dennis F. A. E. Voeten, Adrian S. Losko and Ingmar Werneburg

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, one of the major causes of worldwide amphibian biodiversity loss. Many amphibians exhibit skin-based chemical defences, which may pl...

    Authors: János Ujszegi, Krisztina Ludányi, Ágnes M. Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, László Drahos, Tamás Drexler, Márk Z. Németh, Judit Vörös, Trenton W. J. Garner and Attila Hettyey

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Four ohnologous genes (sox1, sox2, sox3, and sox15) were generated by two rounds of whole-genome duplication in a vertebrate ancestor. In eutherian mammals, Sox1, Sox2, and Sox3 participate in central nervous sys...

    Authors: Yusaku Ogita, Kei Tamura, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Nobuhiko Takamatsu and Michihiko Ito

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:134

    Content type: Article

    Published on:

  15. Callitrichids comprise a diverse group of platyrrhine monkeys that are present across South and Central America. Their secondarily evolved small size and pointed claws allow them to cling to vertical trunks of...

    Authors: Léo Botton-Divet and John A. Nyakatura

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. ApaH like phosphatases (ALPHs) originate from the bacterial ApaH protein and have been identified in all eukaryotic super-groups. Only two of these proteins have been functionally characterised. We have shown ...

    Authors: Paula Andrea Castañeda Londoño, Nicole Banholzer, Bridget Bannermann and Susanne Kramer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The orogeny of the eastern Mediterranean region has substantially affected ecological speciation patterns, particularly of mountain-dwelling species. Mountain vipers of the genus Montivipera are among the paramou...

    Authors: Mohsen Ahmadi, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Mohammad Kaboli, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mansoureh Malekian, Roozbeh Behrooz, Philippe Geniez, John Alroy and Niklaus E. Zimmermann

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Two coexisting species with similar ecological requirements avoid or reduce competition by changing the extent of their use of a given resource. Numerous coexistence mechanisms have been proposed, but species ...

    Authors: Elisa Torretta, Luca Riboldi, Elena Costa, Claudio Delfoco, Erica Frignani and Alberto Meriggi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. In the marine realm, dispersal ability is among the major factors shaping the distribution of species. In the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, the Azores Archipelago is home to a multitude of marine invertebrates whi...

    Authors: L. Baptista, H. Meimberg, S. P. Ávila, A. M. Santos and M. Curto

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. The Chengjiang biota from southwest China (518-million-years old, early Cambrian) has yielded nearly 300 species, of which more than 80 species represent early chelicerates, crustaceans and relatives. The appl...

    Authors: Michel Schmidt, Yu Liu, Xianguang Hou, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Huijan Mai and Roland R. Melzer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research

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  21. Populations living in fragmented habitats may suffer from loss of genetic variation and reduced between-patch dispersal, which are processes that can result in genetic differentiation. This occurs frequently i...

    Authors: Nelli Rönkä, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Angela Pauliny, Robert L. Thomson, Kimmo Nuotio, Hannes Pehlak, Ole Thorup, Petteri Lehikoinen, Antti Rönkä, Donald Blomqvist, Kari Koivula and Laura Kvist

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Plankton are foundational to marine food webs and an important feature for characterizing ocean health. Recent developments in quantitative imaging devices provide in-flow high-throughput sampling from bulk vo...

    Authors: Liam MacNeil, Sergey Missan, Junliang Luo, Thomas Trappenberg and Julie LaRoche

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:123

    Content type: Research

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  23. In Europe, golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been expanding their range out of the southern and southeastern Balkans towards central Europe continually since the 1960s. Here, we investigated the level of functio...

    Authors: Milomir Stefanović, Duško Ćirović, Neda Bogdanović, Felix Knauer, Miklós Heltai, László Szabó, József Lanszki, Chavdar Dinev Zhelev, Helmut Schaschl and Franz Suchentrunk

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:122

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Delimiting cryptic species in elasmobranchs is a major challenge in modern taxonomy due the lack of available phenotypic features. Employing stand-alone genetics in splitting a cryptic species may prove proble...

    Authors: Fahmi, Ian R. Tibbetts, Michael B. Bennett and Christine L. Dudgeon

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. How various host–parasite combinations have been established is an important question in evolutionary biology. We have previously described two nematode species, Rhigonema naylae and Travassosinema claudiae, whic...

    Authors: Seiya Nagae, Kazuki Sato, Tsutomu Tanabe and Koichi Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Tracing the association between insect cold tolerance and latitudinally and locally varying environmental conditions, as well as key morphological traits and molecular mechanisms, is essential for understandin...

    Authors: Noora Poikela, Venera Tyukmaeva, Anneli Hoikkala and Maaria Kankare

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:117

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. There has always been controversy over whether clonal plants have lower genetic diversity than plants that reproduce sexually. These conflicts could be attributed to the fact that few studies have taken into a...

    Authors: Rong Huang, Yu Wang, Kuan Li and Ying-Qiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research

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  28. The taxonomic classification of the suborder Tintinnina Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, a species-rich group of planktonic ciliated protistans with a characteristic lorica, has long been ambiguous largely due to the ...

    Authors: Rui Wang, Yang Bai, Tao Hu, Dapeng Xu, Toshikazu Suzuki and Xiaozhong Hu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. As flatfish, turbot undergo metamorphosis as part of their life cycle. In the larval stage, turbot live at the ocean surface, but after metamorphosis they move to deeper water and turn to benthic life. Thus, t...

    Authors: Yunong Wang, Li Zhou, Lele Wu, Changbin Song, Xiaona Ma, Shihong Xu, Tengfei Du, Xian Li and Jun Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) is among the economically most important freshwater fish species in East Africa, and a major source of protein for local consumption. Human induced translocati...

    Authors: Genanaw Tesfaye, Manuel Curto, Paul Meulenbroek, Gernot K. Englmaier, Papius Dias Tibihika, Esayas Alemayehu, Abebe Getahun and Harald Meimberg

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:113

    Content type: Research

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  31. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: James C. Lamsdell, Gerald O. Gunderson and Ronald C. Meyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:112

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2019 19:8

  32. In contrast to the explosive increase of a population following biological invasion, natural dispersal, i.e., when a population disperses from its original range into a new range, is a passive process that is ...

    Authors: Liqun Yu, Shuai Zhao, Fanbing Meng, Yanshuang Shi and Chunzhu Xu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:111

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Mutation accumulation (MA) has profound ecological and evolutionary consequences. One example is that accumulation of conditionally neutral mutations leads to fitness trade-offs among heterogenous habitats whi...

    Authors: Xiao-Lin Chu and Quan-Guo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. The great diversity in plant genome size and chromosome number is partly due to polyploidization (i.e. genome doubling events). The differences in genome size and chromosome number among diploid plant species ...

    Authors: J. S. Eriksson, C. D. Bacon, D. J. Bennett, B. E. Pfeil, B. Oxelman and A. Antonelli

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Increasing drought induced by global climate changes is altering the structure and function of grassland ecosystems. However, there is a lack of understanding of how drought affects the trade-off of above- and...

    Authors: Xiangyun Li, Xiaoan Zuo, Ping Yue, Xueyong Zhao, Ya Hu, Xinxin Guo, Aixia Guo, Chong Xu and Qiang Yu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research

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  36. Relapsing fever (RF) borreliae are arthropod-borne spirochetes and some of them cause human diseases, which are characterized by relapsing or recurring episodes of fever. Recently, it has been classified into ...

    Authors: Ranna Nakao, Kentaro Kasama, Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Hiroki Kawabata, Atsushi Toyoda, Tetsuya Hayashi, Ai Takano and Ken Maeda

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama and final closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) provides an independent calibration point for examining the rate of DNA substitutions. This vicariant event has bee...

    Authors: Katherine Silliman, Jane L. Indorf, Nancy Knowlton, William E. Browne and Carla Hurt

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research

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  38. The Styracaceae are a woody, dicotyledonous family containing 12 genera and an estimated 160 species. Recent studies have shown that Styrax and Sinojackia are monophyletic, Alniphyllum and Bruinsmia cluster into ...

    Authors: Xiu-Lian Cai, Jacob B. Landis, Hong-Xin Wang, Jian-Hua Wang, Zhi-Xin Zhu and Hua-Feng Wang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:103

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The Euphorbia hypothesis on the origin of fairy circles (FCs) in Namibia dates back to 1979. It proposes that the remains of decaying shrubs would induce an allelopathic interaction with the grasses and thereb...

    Authors: Stephan Getzin, Ailly Nambwandja, Sönke Holch and Kerstin Wiegand

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:102

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Elongated rostra play an important role in the egg-laying of weevils, and its emergence plays a key role in the adaptive radiation of weevils. Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus Motschulsky and E. brandti Harold co-...

    Authors: Ganyu Zhang, Wenjuan Guo, Xiaoyi Wang, Qian Wang, Jin Cui and Junbao Wen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Animal mitochondria play a central role in energy production in the cells through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Recent studies of selection on different mitochondrial OXPHOS genes have reveal...

    Authors: Asma Awadi, Hichem Ben Slimen, Helmut Schaschl, Felix Knauer and Franz Suchentrunk

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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