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  1. Gene losses played a role which may have been as important as gene and genome duplications and rearrangements, in modelling today species' genomes from a common ancestral set of genes. The set and diversity of...

    Authors: Etienne GJ Danchin, Philippe Gouret and Pierre Pontarotti

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Integrons are genetic elements capable of the acquisition, rearrangement and expression of genes contained in gene cassettes. Gene cassettes generally consist of a promoterless gene associated with a recombina...

    Authors: Yan Boucher, Camilla L Nesbø, Michael J Joss, Andrew Robinson, Bridget C Mabbutt, Michael R Gillings, W Ford Doolittle and HW Stokes

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Genomic islands are regions of bacterial genomes that have been acquired by horizontal transfer and often contain blocks of genes that function together for specific processes. Recently, it has become clear th...

    Authors: James W Wilson and Cheryl A Nickerson

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2006 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes,...

    Authors: Christopher L Parkinson, Jeffrey P Mower, Yin-Long Qiu, Andrew J Shirk, Keming Song, Nelson D Young, Claude W dePamphilis and Jeffrey D Palmer

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:73

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Calcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients...

    Authors: Steffen Abel, Tatyana Savchenko and Maggie Levy

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:72

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Evolutionary analyses of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) have yielded important and at times provocative results. One particularly troublesome outcome is the consistent inference of independent...

    Authors: John W Stiller and Leslie Harrell

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:71

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most...

    Authors: Carles Lalueza-Fox, Jose Castresana, Lourdes Sampietro, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Josep Antoni Alcover and Jaume Bertranpetit

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:70

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Merlin, the product of the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene, belongs to the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) subgroup of the protein 4.1 superfamily, which links cell surface glycoproteins to the ac...

    Authors: Kseniya Golovnina, Alexander Blinov, Elena M Akhmametyeva, Leonid V Omelyanchuk and Long-Sheng Chang

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:69

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Group I introns have spread into over 90 different sites in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with greater than 1700 introns reported in these genes. These ribozymes generally spread through endonuclease-mediated i...

    Authors: Debashish Bhattacharya, Valérie Reeb, Dawn M Simon and François Lutzoni

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:68

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In Drosophila melanogaster the Enhancer of split-Complex [E(spl)-C] consists of seven highly related genes encoding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) repressors and intermingled, four genes that belong to the Bearded...

    Authors: Rebekka Schlatter and Dieter Maier

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:67

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffold...

    Authors: Annkatrin Rose, Shannon J Schraegle, Eric A Stahlberg and Iris Meier

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:66

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon i...

    Authors: Sofia Berlin and Nick GC Smith

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:65

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Molecular phylogenetic methods are based on alignments of nucleic or peptidic sequences. The tremendous increase in molecular data permits phylogenetic analyses of very long sequences and of many species, but ...

    Authors: Charles Chapus, Christine Dufraigne, Scott Edwards, Alain Giron, Bernard Fertil and Patrick Deschavanne

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:63

    Content type: Methodology article

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  14. Prior to the sequencing of the human genome it was typically assumed that, tandem duplication aside, gene order is for the most part random. Numerous observers, however, highlighted instances in which a ligand...

    Authors: Laurence D Hurst and Martin J Lercher

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:62

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation), neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation) or both? Although simu...

    Authors: Corinne Vacher, Sam P Brown and Michael E Hochberg

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:60

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Costly structures need to represent an adaptive advantage in order to be maintained over evolutionary times. Contrary to many other conspicuous shell ornamentations of gastropods, the haired shells of several ...

    Authors: Markus Pfenninger, Magda Hrabáková, Dirk Steinke and Aline Dèpraz

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:59

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans belong to a distinct bacterial clade but have remarkably different phenotypes. T. thermophilus is a thermophile, which is relatively sensitive to ionizing radiatio...

    Authors: Marina V Omelchenko, Yuri I Wolf, Elena K Gaidamakova, Vera Y Matrosova, Alexander Vasilenko, Min Zhai, Michael J Daly, Eugene V Koonin and Kira S Makarova

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:57

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Plastid-bearing cryptophytes like Cryptomonas contain four genomes in a cell, the nucleus, the nucleomorph, the plastid genome and the mitochondrial genome. Comparative phylogenetic analyses encompassing DNA sequ...

    Authors: Kerstin Hoef-Emden, Hoang-Dung Tran and Michael Melkonian

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:56

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Comparative genomics has provided valuable insights into the nature of gene sequence variation and chromosomal organization of closely related bacterial species. However, questions about the biological signifi...

    Authors: Gabriela Guerrero, Humberto Peralta, Alejandro Aguilar, Rafael Díaz, Miguel Angel Villalobos, Arturo Medrano-Soto and Jaime Mora

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:55

    Content type: Research article

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  20. HIV-1 is a retrovirus with high rate of recombination. Increasing experimental studies in vitro indicated that local hairpin structure of RNA was associated with recombination by favoring RT pausing and promoting...

    Authors: Chi-Yu Zhang, Ji-Fu Wei and Shao-Heng He

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:53

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The advent of live-attenuated vaccines against measles virus during the 1960'ies changed the circulation dynamics of the virus. Earlier the virus was indigenous to countries worldwide, but now it is mediated b...

    Authors: Mikkel H Schierup, Carl H Mordhorst, Claude P Muller and Laurids S Christensen

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:52

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Alu elements are Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) in primate genomes that have proven useful as markers for studying genome evolution, population biology and phylogenetics. Most of these applications, however,...

    Authors: David A Ray and Mark A Batzer

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:51

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Probabilistic methods have progressively supplanted the Maximum Parsimony (MP) method for inferring phylogenetic trees. One of the major reasons for this shift was that MP is much more sensitive to the Long Br...

    Authors: Hervé Philippe, Yan Zhou, Henner Brinkmann, Nicolas Rodrigue and Frédéric Delsuc

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:50

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The modern wildherd of the tundra muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is native only to the New World (northern North America and Greenland), and its genetic diversity is notably low. However, like several other megafaunal...

    Authors: Ross DE MacPhee, Alexei N Tikhonov, Dick Mol and Alex D Greenwood

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:49

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Translation initiation in eukaryotes involves the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome which is controlled by the translation factor eIF4E. eIF4E binds to the 5'-m7Gppp cap-structure of mRNA. Three dimensional str...

    Authors: Bhavesh Joshi, Kibwe Lee, Dennis L Maeder and Rosemary Jagus

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:48

    Content type: Research article

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  26. We investigated genetic variation of a major histcompatibility complex (MHC) pseudogene (Anvi-DAB1) in the little greenbul (Andropadus virens) from four localities in Cameroon and one in Ivory Coast, West Africa....

    Authors: Andres Aguilar, Thomas B Smith and Robert K Wayne

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad). This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a...

    Authors: Anthony G Russell, Timothy E Shutt, Russell F Watkins and Michael W Gray

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:45

    Content type: Research article

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  28. A number of recent papers have cast doubt on the applicability of the quasispecies concept to virus evolution, and have argued that population genetics is a more appropriate framework to describe virus evoluti...

    Authors: Claus O Wilke

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:44

    Content type: Correspondence

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  29. The cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), catalyses the aromatisation of androgens to estrogens, a key mechanism in vertebrate reproductive physiology. A current evolutionary hypothesis suggests that CYP19 gene aros...

    Authors: L Filipe C Castro, Miguel M Santos and Maria A Reis-Henriques

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:43

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The genes for salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits have been evolving rapidly in ancestors of the house mouse Mus musculus, as evidenced both by recent and extensive gene duplication and by high ratio...

    Authors: Christina M Laukaitis, Stephen R Dlouhy, Richard D Emes, Chris P Ponting and Robert C Karn

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:40

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Rodent and primate pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene families have expanded independently from a common ancestor and are expressed virtually exclusively in placental trophoblasts. However, within each sp...

    Authors: Andrew S McLellan, Wolfgang Zimmermann and Tom Moore

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:39

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Internal reproductive organ size is an important determinant of male reproductive success. While the response of testis length to variation in the intensity of sperm competition is well documented across many ...

    Authors: David W Rogers, Tracey Chapman, Kevin Fowler and Andrew Pomiankowski

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The concept of a genomic core, defined as the set of genes ubiquitous in all genomes of a monophyletic group, has become crucial in comparative and evolutionary genomics. However, it is still a matter of debat...

    Authors: Céline Brochier, Patrick Forterre and Simonetta Gribaldo

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Since Darwin's Origin of Species, reconstructing the Tree of Life has been a goal of evolutionists, and tree-thinking has become a major concept of evolutionary biology. Practically, building the Tree of Life ...

    Authors: E Bapteste, E Susko, J Leigh, D MacLeod, RL Charlebois and WF Doolittle

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  35. We have examined the evolution of the genes at the major human β-defensin locus and the orthologous loci in a range of other primates and mouse. For the first time these data allow us to examine selective epis...

    Authors: Colin AM Semple, Alison Maxwell, Philippe Gautier, Fiona M Kilanowski, Hayden Eastwood, Perdita E Barran and Julia R Dorin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Integrins are a functionally significant family of metazoan cell surface adhesion receptors. The receptors are dimers composed of an alpha and a beta chain. Vertebrate genomes encode an expanded set of integri...

    Authors: Richard Ewan, Julie Huxley-Jones, A Paul Mould, Martin J Humphries, David L Robertson and Raymond P Boot-Handford

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The chromosomes of higher plants are littered with retrotransposons that, in many cases, constitute as much as 80% of plant genomes. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons have been especially successful coloni...

    Authors: Sho T Yano, Bahman Panbehi, Arpita Das and Howard M Laten

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  38. To help conservation programs of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise and to gain better insight into its systematics, genetic variation and evolution in the tortoise species Testudo graeca (Testudines: Testudini...

    Authors: Antoinette C van der Kuyl, Donato LP Ballasina and Fokla Zorgdrager

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005 5:29

    Content type: Research article

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