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  1. Aging refers to a decline in reproduction and survival with increasing age. According to evolutionary theory, aging evolves because selection late in life is weak and mutations exist whose deleterious effects ...

    Authors: Martin Ackermann, Alexandra Schauerte, Stephen C Stearns and Urs Jenal
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:126
  2. Molecular evolution is usually described assuming a neutral or weakly non-neutral substitution model. Recently, new data have become available on evolution of sequence regions under a selective pressure, e.g. ...

    Authors: Farida N Enikeeva, Ekaterina A Kotelnikova, Mikhail S Gelfand and Vsevolod J Makeev
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:125
  3. The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The...

    Authors: Alexandra Rosa, Carolina Ornelas, Mark A Jobling, António Brehm and Richard Villems
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:124
  4. The mitochondrial genomes of snakes are characterized by an overall evolutionary rate that appears to be one of the most accelerated among vertebrates. They also possess other unusual features, including short...

    Authors: Zhi J Jiang, Todd A Castoe, Christopher C Austin, Frank T Burbrink, Matthew D Herron, Jimmy A McGuire, Christopher L Parkinson and David D Pollock
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:123
  5. Colonial invertebrates such as corals exhibit nested levels of modularity, imposing a challenge to the depiction of their morphological evolution. Comparisons among diverse Caribbean gorgonian corals suggest d...

    Authors: Juan A Sánchez, Catalina Aguilar, Daniel Dorado and Nelson Manrique
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:122
  6. The Class I cytokine receptors have a wide range of actions, including a major role in the development and function of immune and blood cells. However, the evolution of the genes encoding them remains poorly u...

    Authors: Clifford Liongue and Alister C Ward
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:120
  7. Onychophora (velvet worms) represent the most basal arthropod group and play a pivotal role in the current discussion on the evolution of nervous systems and segmentation in arthropods. Although there is a wea...

    Authors: Georg Mayer and Steffen Harzsch
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:118
  8. Helicoverpa armigera and H. zea are amongst the most significant polyphagous pest lepidopteran species in the Old and New Worlds respectively. Separation of H. armigera and H. zea is difficult and is usually only...

    Authors: Gajanan T Behere, Wee Tek Tay, Derek A Russell, David G Heckel, Belinda R Appleton, Keshav R Kranthi and Philip Batterham
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:117
  9. Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples fro...

    Authors: Duur K Aanen, Vera ID Ros, Henrik H de Fine Licht, Jannette Mitchell, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Bernard Slippers, Corinne Rouland-LeFèvre and Jacobus J Boomsma
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:115
  10. Action potential generation in excitable cells such as myocytes and neurons critically depends on voltage-gated sodium channels. In mammals, sodium channels exist as macromolecular complexes that include a por...

    Authors: Sameer S Chopra, Hiroshi Watanabe, Tao P Zhong and Dan M Roden
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:113
  11. In contrast to DNA-mediated transposable elements (TEs), retrotransposons, particularly non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs), are generally considered to have a much lower propensity towards ho...

    Authors: James K Biedler and Zhijian Tu
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:112
  12. The biosynthesis of aflatoxin (AF) involves over 20 enzymatic reactions in a complex polyketide pathway that converts acetate and malonate to the intermediates sterigmatocystin (ST) and O-methylsterigmatocystin (...

    Authors: Ignazio Carbone, Jorge H Ramirez-Prado, Judy L Jakobek and Bruce W Horn
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:111
  13. RNA molecules, through their dual appearance as sequence and structure, represent a suitable model to study evolutionary properties of quasispecies. The essential ingredient in this model is the differentiatio...

    Authors: Michael Stich, Carlos Briones and Susanna C Manrubia
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:110
  14. Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, ...

    Authors: Manuel Manchado, Carlos Infante, Esther Asensio, Jose Pedro Cañavate and Susan E Douglas
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:107
  15. As bacteria, motile archaeal species swim by means of rotating flagellum structures driven by a proton gradient force. Interestingly, experimental data have shown that the archaeal flagellum is non-homologous ...

    Authors: Elie Desmond, Celine Brochier-Armanet and Simonetta Gribaldo
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:106
  16. A controversial topic in evolutionary developmental biology is whether morphological diversification in natural populations can be driven by expansions and contractions of amino acid repeats in proteins. To pr...

    Authors: Charlotte Lindqvist, Liisa Laakkonen and Victor A Albert
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:105
  17. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus has originally been developed as a satellite organism for comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans. A 10X coverage of the whole genome of P. pacificus is available, making P. pacif...

    Authors: Werner E Mayer, Matthias Herrmann and Ralf J Sommer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:104
  18. Septins are cytoskeletal GTPase proteins first discovered in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they organize the septum and link nuclear division with cell division. More recently septins have been found ...

    Authors: Fangfang Pan, Russell L Malmberg and Michelle Momany
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:103
  19. The melanocortin (MC) receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The purpose of this study was to identify...

    Authors: Tatjana Haitina, Janis Klovins, Akiyoshi Takahashi, Maja Löwgren, Aneta Ringholm, Johan Enberg, Hiroshi Kawauchi, Earl T Larson, Robert Fredriksson and Helgi B Schiöth
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:101
  20. The mosquito Culex annulirostris Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of endemic arboviruses in Australia and is also responsible for the establishment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in southe...

    Authors: Stéphane Hemmerter, Jan Šlapeta, Andrew F van den Hurk, Robert D Cooper, Peter I Whelan, Richard C Russell, Cheryl A Johansen and Nigel W Beebe
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:100
  21. The sensory drive hypothesis predicts that divergent sensory adaptation in different habitats may lead to premating isolation upon secondary contact of populations. Speciation by sensory drive has traditionall...

    Authors: Masakado Kawata, Ayako Shoji, Shoji Kawamura and Ole Seehausen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:99
  22. RNA editing and alternative splicing play an important role in expanding protein diversity and this is well illustrated in studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).

    Authors: Yongfeng Jin, Nan Tian, Jun Cao, Jing Liang, Zhaolin Yang and Jianning Lv
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:98
  23. Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snai...

    Authors: Timothy A Rawlings, Kenneth A Hayes, Robert H Cowie and Timothy M Collins
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:97
  24. Molecular clock dates, which place the origin of animal phyla deep in the Precambrian, have been used to reject the hypothesis of a rapid evolutionary radiation of animal phyla supported by the fossil record. ...

    Authors: Eric Fontanillas, John J Welch, Jessica A Thomas and Lindell Bromham
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:95
  25. Non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that propagate themselves by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Non-LTR retrotransposons are known to evolve mainly vi...

    Authors: Olga Novikova, Ewa Śliwińska, Victor Fet, Josef Settele, Alexander Blinov and Michal Woyciechowski
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:93
  26. That pathogens and hosts coevolve is a powerful concept with broad theoretical and applied implications spanning from genetic theory to the medical and veterinary sciences, particularly in the context of infec...

    Authors: Joanne P Webster, Jaya Shrivastava, Paul J Johnson and Lynsey Blair
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:91
  27. Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics, ...

    Authors: Alejandro Grajales, Catalina Aguilar and Juan A Sánchez
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:90
  28. Lateral gene transfer is increasingly invoked to explain phylogenetic results that conflict with our understanding of organismal relationships. In eukaryotes, the most common observation interpreted in this wa...

    Authors: Matthew B Rogers, Russell F Watkins, James T Harper, Dion G Durnford, Michael W Gray and Patrick J Keeling
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:89
  29. Metallothionein (mt) transcription is elevated in heavy metal tolerant field populations of Orchesella cincta (Collembola). This suggests that natural selection acts on transcriptional regulation of mt in springt...

    Authors: Thierry KS Janssens, Janine Mariën, Peter Cenijn, J Legler, Nico M van Straalen and Dick Roelofs
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:88
  30. Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930's. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied t...

    Authors: Jian-jun Gao, Hide-aki Watabe, Tadashi Aotsuka, Jun-feng Pang and Ya-ping Zhang
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:87
  31. The walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Norwegian pollock (T. finnmarchica) are confined to the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, respectively, and considered as distinct species within the family ...

    Authors: Anita Ursvik, Ragna Breines, Jørgen Schou Christiansen, Svein-Erik Fevolden, Dag H Coucheron and Steinar D Johansen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:86
  32. Paulinella chromatophora is a freshwater filose amoeba with photosynthetic endosymbionts (chromatophores) of cyanobacterial origin that are closely related to free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species...

    Authors: Birger Marin, Eva CM Nowack, Gernot Glöckner and Michael Melkonian
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:85
  33. Distinguishing the recent introduction of quinolone resistant gonococci into a population from diversification of resistant strains already in the population is important for planning effective infection contr...

    Authors: Marcos Pérez-Losada, Keith A Crandall, Margaret C Bash, Michael Dan, Jonathan Zenilman and Raphael P Viscidi
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:84
  34. The lemurs of Madagascar provide an excellent mammalian radiation to explore mechanisms and processes favouring species diversity and evolution. Species diversity, in particular of nocturnal species, increased...

    Authors: Mathias Craul, Elke Zimmermann, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina and Ute Radespiel
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:83
  35. Female only unisexual vertebrates that reproduce by hybridogenesis show an unusual genetic composition. They are of hybrid origin but show no recombination between the genomes of their parental species. Instea...

    Authors: Christian Som, Homayoun C Bagheri and Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:80
  36. The type 1 (microbial) rhodopsins are a diverse group of photochemically reactive proteins that display a broad yet patchy distribution among the three domains of life. Recent work indicates that this pattern ...

    Authors: Adrian K Sharma, David A Walsh, Eric Bapteste, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera, W Ford Doolittle and R Thane Papke
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:79
  37. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes that synthesize a wide range of biologically active natural peptide compounds, of which many are pharmacologically important. Peptide bo...

    Authors: Christian Rausch, Ilka Hoof, Tilmann Weber, Wolfgang Wohlleben and Daniel H Huson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:78

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