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  1. Although the impact of pathogens on the evolution of the mammalian immune system is still under debate, proteins, which both regulate immune responses and serve as cellular receptors for pathogens should be at...

    Authors: Robert Kammerer, Tanja Popp, Stefan Härtle, Bernhard B Singer and Wolfgang Zimmermann
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:196
  2. In a number of species males damage females during copulation, but the reasons for this remain unclear. It may be that males are trying to manipulate female mating behaviour or their life histories. Alternativ...

    Authors: Y Teuschl, DJ Hosken and WU Blanckenhorn
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:194
  3. Between five and fourteen per cent of genes in the vertebrate genomes do overlap sharing some intronic and/or exonic sequence. It was observed that majority of these overlaps are not conserved among vertebrate...

    Authors: Izabela Makałowska, Chiao-Feng Lin and Krisitina Hernandez
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:193
  4. The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction ...

    Authors: Liran Carmel, Igor B Rogozin, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:192
  5. Insertions and deletions of DNA segments (indels) are together with substitutions the major mutational processes that generate genetic variation. Here we focus on recent DNA insertions and deletions in protein...

    Authors: Nicole de la Chaux, Philipp W Messer and Peter F Arndt
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:191
  6. The phylogenetic tree of Galliformes (gamebirds, including megapodes, currassows, guinea fowl, New and Old World quails, chicken, pheasants, grouse, and turkeys) has been considerably remodeled over the last d...

    Authors: Jan Ole Kriegs, Andreas Matzke, Gennady Churakov, Andrej Kuritzin, Gerald Mayr, Jürgen Brosius and Jürgen Schmitz
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:190
  7. Alternative splicing has been reported in various eukaryotic groups including plants, apicomplexans, diatoms, amoebae, animals and fungi. However, whether widespread alternative splicing has evolved independen...

    Authors: Manuel Irimia, Jakob Lewin Rukov, David Penny and Scott William Roy
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:188
  8. Progressive diversification of paralogs after gene expansion is essential to increase their functional specialization. However, mode and tempo of this divergence remain mostly unclear. Here we report the compa...

    Authors: Irene Fumasoni, Natalia Meani, Davide Rambaldi, Gaia Scafetta, Myriam Alcalay and Francesca D Ciccarelli
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:187
  9. The water buffalo- Bu balus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poor...

    Authors: Satish Kumar, Muniyandi Nagarajan, Jasmeet S Sandhu, Niraj Kumar and Vandana Behl
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:186
  10. Because the systems of social organisation in the various species of Pemphigus aphids span the continuum from asociality through to advanced sociality (typified by the possession of morphologically specialised so...

    Authors: Nathan Pike, John A Whitfield and William A Foster
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:185
  11. The Mannheimia subclades belong to the same bacterial genus, but have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. For example, M. haemolytica + M. glucosida are potential pathogens of the respiratory ...

    Authors: Jesper Larsen, Peter Kuhnert, Joachim Frey, Henrik Christensen, Magne Bisgaard and John E Olsen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:184
  12. Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcysti...

    Authors: David P Fewer, Leo Rouhiainen, Jouni Jokela, Matti Wahlsten, Kati Laakso, Hao Wang and Kaarina Sivonen
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:183
  13. Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. We aim t...

    Authors: Olaf RP Bininda-Emonds, Jonathan E Jeffery, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, James Hanken, Matthew Colbert, Claude Pieau, Lynne Selwood, Carel ten Cate, Albert Raynaud, Casmile K Osabutey and Michael K Richardson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:182
  14. Bacterial symbioses are widespread among insects. The early establishment of such symbiotic associations has probably been one of the key factors for the evolutionary success of insects, since it may have allo...

    Authors: Javier Tamames, Rosario Gil, Amparo Latorre, Juli Peretó, Francisco J Silva and Andrés Moya
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:181
  15. Urodele amphibians like the axolotl are unique among vertebrates in their ability to regenerate and their resistance to develop cancers. It is unknown whether these traits are linked at the molecular level.

    Authors: Éric Villiard, Henner Brinkmann, Olga Moiseeva, Frédérick A Mallette, Gerardo Ferbeyre and Stéphane Roy
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:180
  16. Alternative splicing (AS) has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP), as a measure of selection pressure,...

    Authors: Feng-Chi Chen and Trees-Juen Chuang
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:179
  17. Comparative genomics has greatly improved our understanding of the evolution of pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we have used data from a genome microarray analysis to explore inse...

    Authors: Michael Käser, Simona Rondini, Martin Naegeli, Tim Stinear, Francoise Portaels, Ulrich Certa and Gerd Pluschke
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:177
  18. Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes'...

    Authors: Susanta Pahari, David Bickford, Bryan G Fry and R Manjunatha Kini
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:175
  19. Genes responsible for biosynthesis of fungal secondary metabolites are usually tightly clustered in the genome and co-regulated with metabolite production. Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are a class of sec...

    Authors: Nicola J Patron, Ross F Waller, Anton J Cozijnsen, David C Straney, Donald M Gardiner, William C Nierman and Barbara J Howlett
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:174
  20. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogeno...

    Authors: Tetyana Nosenko and Debashish Bhattacharya
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:173
  21. The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum are distinguished by the presence of a tertiary plastid derived from a diatom endosymbiont. The diatom is fully integrated with the host cell c...

    Authors: Behzad Imanian and Patrick J Keeling
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:172
  22. The male-specific region of the mouse Y chromosome long arm (MSYq) contains three known highly multi-copy X-Y homologous gene families, Ssty1/2, Sly and Asty. Deletions on MSYq lead to teratozoospermia and subfer...

    Authors: Peter JI Ellis, Lydia Ferguson, Emily J Clemente and Nabeel A Affara
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:171
  23. Dating of population divergence is critical in understanding speciation and in evaluating the evolutionary significance of genetic lineages, upon which identification of conservation and management units shoul...

    Authors: Begoña Martínez-Cruz and José Antonio Godoy
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:170
  24. We recently reported a highly unexpected positive correlation between the fixation probability of nonsynonymous mutations (estimated by ω) and neutral mutation rate (estimated by Ks) in mammalian lineages. Howeve...

    Authors: Eric J Vallender and Bruce T Lahn
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:168
  25. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a primordial process in development and its dysregulation has a central role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Angiogenin (ANG), a peculiar member of th...

    Authors: Daniel S Osorio, Agostinho Antunes and Maria J Ramos
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:167
  26. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) plays a critical role in recruiting leukocytes in inflammatory lesions by mediating leukocyte rolling on selectins. Core-2 O-glycosylation of a N-terminal threonine and s...

    Authors: Bénédicte Baïsse, Frédérique Galisson, Sylvain Giraud, Marc Schapira and Olivier Spertini
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:166
  27. The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. W...

    Authors: Pavel Hulva, Ivan Horáček and Petr Benda
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:165
  28. Tanabin, transitin and nestin are type VI intermediate filament (IF) proteins that are developmentally regulated in frogs, birds and mammals, respectively. Tanabin is expressed in the growth cones of embryonic...

    Authors: Dominique Guérette, Paul A Khan, Pierre E Savard and Michel Vincent
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:164
  29. The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) is an important pathogen of cultivated plants in the family Solanaceae. Isolates of R. solani AG-3 are taxonomically related based on the composition ...

    Authors: Paulo C Ceresini, H David Shew, Timothy Y James, Rytas J Vilgalys and Marc A Cubeta
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:163
  30. It is much debated whether microbes are easily dispersed globally or whether they, like many macro-organisms, have historical biogeographies. The ubiquitous dispersal hypothesis states that microbes are so num...

    Authors: David Bass, Thomas A Richards, Lena Matthai, Victoria Marsh and Thomas Cavalier-Smith
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:162
  31. The Notostraca is a small but ancient crustacean order with a contrasting combination of a conservative morphology and a wide range of reproductive modes. The tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis, includes bisexual...

    Authors: Thorid Zierold, Bernd Hanfling and Africa Gómez
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:161
  32. The Mollusca constitute one of the most morphologically and ecologically diverse metazoan phyla, occupying a wide range of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The evolutionary success of the molluscs ...

    Authors: Daniel J Jackson, Gert Wörheide and Bernard M Degnan
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:160
  33. Group I introns are one of the four major classes of introns as defined by their distinct splicing mechanisms. Because they catalyze their own removal from precursor transcripts, group I introns are referred t...

    Authors: Peik Haugen, Debashish Bhattacharya, Jeffrey D Palmer, Seán Turner, Louise A Lewis and Kathleen M Pryer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:159
  34. Genetic systems involving multiple X chromosomes have arisen repeatedly in sexually reproducing animals. Tiger beetles (Cicindelidae) exhibit a phylogenetically ancient multiple-X system typically consisting o...

    Authors: José Galián, Sónia JR Proença and Alfried P Vogler
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:158
  35. The evolution of genomic imprinting, the parental-origin specific expression of genes, is the subject of much debate. There are several theories to account for how the mechanism evolved including the hypothesi...

    Authors: Carol A Edwards, Willem Rens, Oliver Clarke, Andrew J Mungall, Timothy Hore, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, Ian Dunham, Anne C Ferguson-Smith and Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:157
  36. The development of post-genomic methods has dramatically increased the amount of qualitative and quantitative data available to understand how ecological complexity is shaped. Yet, new statistical tools are ne...

    Authors: Sandrine Pavoine and Xavier Bailly
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:156
  37. Within Chordata, the subphyla Vertebrata and Cephalochordata (lancelets) are characterized by a remarkable stability of the mitochondrial (mt) genome, with constancy of gene content and almost invariant gene o...

    Authors: Fabio Iannelli, Francesca Griggio, Graziano Pesole and Carmela Gissi
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:155
  38. The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is a statistical principle that states that as the number of repeated samples from any population increase, the variance among sample means will decrease and means will become m...

    Authors: Mark I Stevens, Katja Hogendoorn and Michael P Schwarz
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:153
  39. The genus Oryza is composed of 10 distinct genome types, 6 diploid and 4 polyploid, and includes the world's most important food crop – rice (Oryza sativa [AA]). Genome size variation in the Oryza is more than 3-...

    Authors: Andrea Zuccolo, Aswathy Sebastian, Jayson Talag, Yeisoo Yu, HyeRan Kim, Kristi Collura, Dave Kudrna and Rod A Wing
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:152
  40. Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are important mediators of the innate immune system. TLR1 and TLR6 are paralogs and located in tandem on the same chromosome in ma...

    Authors: Egbert KO Kruithof, Nathalie Satta, Jia Wei Liu, Sylvie Dunoyer-Geindre and Richard J Fish
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:148
  41. Published molecular phylogenies are usually based on data whose quality has not been explored prior to tree inference. This leads to errors because trees obtained with conventional methods suppress conflicting...

    Authors: Johann Wolfgang Wägele and Christoph Mayer
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:147
  42. Chaetognaths, or arrow worms, are small marine, bilaterally symmetrical metazoans. The objective of this study was to analyse ribosomal protein (RP) coding sequences from a published collection of expressed se...

    Authors: Roxane M Barthélémy, Anne Chenuil, Samuel Blanquart, Jean-Paul Casanova and Eric Faure
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:146

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