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  1. Evolutionary biologists are often misled by convergence of morphology and this has been common in the study of bird evolution. However, the use of molecular data sets have their own problems and phylogenies ba...

    Authors: Mary Morgan-Richards, Steve A Trewick, Anna Bartosch-Härlid, Olga Kardailsky, Matthew J Phillips, Patricia A McLenachan and David Penny
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:20
  2. Hsp70 chaperones are required for key cellular processes and response to environmental changes and survival but they have not been fully characterized yet. The human hsp70-gene family has an unknown number of mem...

    Authors: Luciano Brocchieri, Everly Conway de Macario and Alberto JL Macario
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:19
  3. Insertion sequences (ISs) are small, mobile DNA entities able to expand in prokaryotic genomes and trigger important rearrangements. To understand their role in evolution, accurate IS taxonomy is essential. Th...

    Authors: Daniel De Palmenaer, Patricia Siguier and Jacques Mahillon
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:18
  4. The neprilysin (M13) family of endopeptidases are zinc-metalloenzymes, the majority of which are type II integral membrane proteins. The best characterised of this family is neprilysin, which has important rol...

    Authors: Nicholas D Bland, John W Pinney, Josie E Thomas, Anthony J Turner and R Elwyn Isaac
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:16
  5. Organisms live in environments that vary. For life-history traits that vary across environments, fitness will be maximised when the phenotype is appropriately matched to the environmental conditions. For the f...

    Authors: Simon C Harvey, Alison Shorto and Mark E Viney
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:15
  6. Our understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life and the tremendous diversity of microbial eukaryotes is in flux as additional genes and diverse taxa are sampled for molecular analyses. Despite instability in ...

    Authors: Hwan Su Yoon, Jessica Grant, Yonas I Tekle, Min Wu, Benjamin C Chaon, Jeffrey C Cole, John M Logsdon Jr, David J Patterson, Debashish Bhattacharya and Laura A Katz
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:14
  7. Specialised leaf-eating is almost universally regarded as the ancestral state of all ruminants, yet little evidence can be cited in support of this assumption, apart from the fact that all early ruminants had ...

    Authors: Daniel DeMiguel, Mikael Fortelius, Beatriz Azanza and Jorge Morales
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:13
  8. Mutation rate (μ) per generation per locus is an important parameter in the models of population genetics. Studies on mutation rate and its variation are of significance to elucidate the extent and distributio...

    Authors: Li-zhi Gao and Hongyan Xu
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:11
  9. Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) is a highly successful weed with a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system. Previous studies reveal that the strength of SI in S. carolinense is a plastic trait, associated...

    Authors: Jorge I Mena-Ali, Lidewij H Keser and Andrew G Stephenson
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:10
  10. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest families of genes in mammals. Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus) is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates.

    Authors: Karl JV Nordström, Robert Fredriksson and Helgi B Schiöth
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:9
  11. Many electron transport chain (ETC) genes show accelerated rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in anthropoid primate lineages, yet in non-anthropoid lineages the ETC proteins are typically highly c...

    Authors: Monica Uddin, Juan C Opazo, Derek E Wildman, Chet C Sherwood, Patrick R Hof, Morris Goodman and Lawrence I Grossman
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:8
  12. The mal genes that encode maltose transporters have undergone extensive lateral transfer among ancestors of the archaea Thermococcus litoralis and Pyrococcus furiosus. Bacterial hyperthermophiles of the order The...

    Authors: Kenneth M Noll, Pascal Lapierre, J Peter Gogarten and Dhaval M Nanavati
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:7
  13. Phylogenomic pipelines generate a large collection of phylogenetic trees that require manual inspection to answer questions about gene or genome evolution. A notable application of phylogenomics is to photosyn...

    Authors: Ahmed Moustafa and Debashish Bhattacharya
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:6
  14. The molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae are undergoing speciation. They are characterized by a strong assortative mating and they display partial habitat segregation. The M form is mostly found in flooded/irriga...

    Authors: Abdoulaye Diabaté, Roch K Dabiré, Kyle Heidenberger, Jacob Crawford, William O Lamp, Lauren E Culler and Tovi Lehmann
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:5
  15. Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi. Their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air or during at...

    Authors: Christian P Kubicek, Scott Baker, Christian Gamauf, Charles M Kenerley and Irina S Druzhinina
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:4
  16. Alternative splicing has been shown to be one of the major evolutionary mechanisms for protein diversification and proteome expansion, since a considerable fraction of alternative splicing events appears to be...

    Authors: Ramil N Nurtdinov, Alexey D Neverov, Alexander V Favorov, Andrey A Mironov and Mikhail S Gelfand
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:249
  17. Some of the most difficult phylogenetic questions in evolutionary biology involve identification of the free-living relatives of parasitic organisms, particularly those of parasitic flowering plants. Consequen...

    Authors: Todd J Barkman, Joel R McNeal, Seok-Hong Lim, Gwen Coat, Henrietta B Croom, Nelson D Young and Claude W dePamphilis
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:248
  18. The forests of the upper Amazon basin harbour some of the world's highest anuran species richness, but to date we have only the sparsest understanding of the distribution of genetic diversity within and among ...

    Authors: Kathryn R Elmer, José A Dávila and Stephen C Lougheed
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:247
  19. The major lineages of eusocial insects, the ants, termites, stingless bees, honeybees and vespid wasps, all have ancient origins (≥ 65 mya) with no reversions to solitary behaviour. This has prompted the notio...

    Authors: Luke B Chenoweth, Simon M Tierney, Jaclyn A Smith, Steven JB Cooper and Michael P Schwarz
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:246
  20. Among the long-standing conundrums of evolutionary theory, obligatory sex is one of the hardest. Current theory suggests multiple factors that might explain the benefits of sex when compared with complete asex...

    Authors: Lilach Hadany and Tuvik Beker
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:245
  21. Previous phylogenetic analyses of African elephants have included limited numbers of forest elephant samples. A large-scale assessment of mitochondrial DNA diversity in forest elephant populations here reveals...

    Authors: Mireille B Johnson, Stephen L Clifford, Benoît Goossens, Silvester Nyakaana, Bryan Curran, Lee JT White, E Jean Wickings and Michael W Bruford
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:244
  22. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of animal and plant pathogenic bacteria. Variation at the interstrain level is common in LPS biosynthetic gene clusters of animal path...

    Authors: Prabhu B Patil, Adam J Bogdanove and Ramesh V Sonti
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:243
  23. Molecular sequence data have become the standard in modern day phylogenetics. In particular, several long-standing questions of mammalian evolutionary history have been recently resolved thanks to the use of m...

    Authors: Vincent Ranwez, Frédéric Delsuc, Sylvie Ranwez, Khalid Belkhir, Marie-Ka Tilak and Emmanuel JP Douzery
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:241
  24. A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – wit...

    Authors: Peter Andras, John Lazarus and Gilbert Roberts
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:240
  25. Comparison of completely sequenced microbial genomes has revealed how fluid these genomes are. Detecting synteny blocks requires reliable methods to determining the orthologs among the whole set of homologs de...

    Authors: Frédéric Lemoine, Olivier Lespinet and Bernard Labedan
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:237
  26. Today it is widely accepted that plastids are of cyanobacterial origin. During their evolutionary integration into the metabolic and regulatory networks of the host cell the engulfed cyanobacteria lost their i...

    Authors: Tobias Wunder, Roman Martin, Wolfgang Löffelhardt, Enrico Schleiff and Jürgen M Steiner
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:236
  27. Theory and artificial selection experiments show that recombination can promote adaptation by enhancing the efficacy of natural selection, but the extent to which recombination affects levels of adaptation acr...

    Authors: Tim Connallon and L Lacey Knowles
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:235
  28. At the last glacial maximum, Fennoscandia was covered by an ice sheet while the tundra occupied most of the rest of northern Eurasia. More or less disjunct refugial populations of plants were dispersed in sout...

    Authors: Krassimir Naydenov, Sauphie Senneville, Jean Beaulieu, Francine Tremblay and Jean Bousquet
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:233
  29. Y-chromosomal haplogroup (Y-HG) Q is suggested to originate in Asia and represent recent founder paternal Native American radiation into the Americas. This group is delineated into Q1, Q2 and Q3 subgroups defi...

    Authors: Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Audesh K Bhat, Amarjit S Bhanwer and Rameshwar NK Bamezai
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:232
  30. Along the chromosome of the obligate intracellular bacteria Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, we recently described a genomic island Pam100G. It contains a tra unit likely involved in conjugative DNA transfer and...

    Authors: Myriam Eugster, Claude-Alain H Roten and Gilbert Greub
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:231
  31. The hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis show how mitochondria can evolve into hydrogenosomes because they possess a mitochondrial genome and parts of an electron-transport chain on the one ...

    Authors: Brigitte Boxma, Guenola Ricard, Angela HAM van Hoek, Edouard Severing, Seung-Yeo Moon-van der Staay, Georg WM van der Staay, Theo A van Alen, Rob M de Graaf, Geert Cremers, Michiel Kwantes, Neil R McEwan, C Jamie Newbold, Jean-Pierre Jouany, Tadeusz Michalowski, Peter Pristas, Martijn A Huynen…
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:230
  32. Distance matrix methods constitute a major family of phylogenetic estimation methods, and the minimum evolution (ME) principle (aiming at recovering the phylogeny with shortest length) is one of the most commo...

    Authors: Daniele Catanzaro, Rafflaele Pesenti and Michel C Milinkovitch
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:228
  33. The diversity of parasites attacking a host varies substantially among different host species. Understanding the factors that explain these patterns of parasite diversity is critical to identifying the ecologi...

    Authors: Joseph Hughes and Roderic DM Page
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:227
  34. Codon usage bias (CUB), the uneven use of synonymous codons, is a ubiquitous observation in virtually all organisms examined. The pattern of codon usage is generally similar among closely related species, but ...

    Authors: Saverio Vicario, Etsuko N Moriyama and Jeffrey R Powell
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:226
  35. Robustness is a fundamental property of biological systems and is defined as the ability to maintain stable functioning in the face of various perturbations. Understanding how robustness has evolved has become...

    Authors: Wenjie Shu, Xiaochen Bo, Ming Ni, Zhiqiang Zheng and Shengqi Wang
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:223
  36. Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation) or partitioning of the function of the ancestral mole...

    Authors: João CR Cardoso, Edwin CJM de Vet, Bruno Louro, Greg Elgar, Melody S Clark and Deborah M Power
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:221
  37. Circum-Antarctic waters harbour a rare example of a marine species flock – the Notothenioid fish, most species of which are restricted to the continental shelf. It remains an open question as to how they survi...

    Authors: Karel Janko, Guillaume Lecointre, Arthur DeVries, Arnaud Couloux, Corinne Cruaud and Craig Marshall
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:220
  38. Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle ta...

    Authors: Dominique Swennen and Jean-Marie Beckerich
    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:219

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