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Table 1 Associations of rodent abundance with the intrinsic factor (rodent abundance of last year), human disturbance factor (annual GDP), climate factors (annual mean temperature, annual precipitation), habitat, and spatial autocorrelation based on analyses using Eq. (1)

From: Sustained population decline of rodents is linked to accelerated climate warming and human disturbance

Family Species/groups Number of time series Rodent abundance of last year Annual GDP Annual mean temperature Annual Precipitation Habitat Spatial auto correlation
  Pooled populations 115 0.62*** 0.07*** 0.03# 0.03*# + +
Mixed populations 35 0.69***   0.07**#    
Muridae Rattus norvegicus 13 0.48*** 0.12* 0.1*   +  
Apodemus agrarius 12 0.48*** 0.15** 0.14**# 0.09# +  
Mus musculus 6 0.25** 0.25**   0.14 + +
Rattus tanezumi 6 0.64***    0.11    
Meriones unguiculatus 5 0.54*** 0.18*    NA NA
Rattus losea 2 0.43** 0.61***    NA NA
Rhombomys opimus 1      NA NA
Niviventer confucianus 1    0.25    NA NA
Apodemus peninsulae 1    0.39*#   NA NA
Rattus nitidus 1 0.35 0.4*    NA NA
Bandicota indica 1 0.82***     NA NA
Sciuridae Spermophilus dauricus 10 0.55***    0.1#   
Spermophilus alashanicus 8 0.82***   0.16**#   NA NA
Marmota sibirica 1 0.36*   0.27#   NA NA
Cricetidae Cricetulus barabensis 5 0.27***    0.19**# +  
Tscherskia triton 4 0.5*** 0.28**    NA NA
Phodopus sungorus 1      NA NA
Dipodidae Allactaga sibirica 2 0.49***     0.24 NA NA
  1. Bold values indicated the coefficients represent the significant effects (p < 0.05). + denotes the significant effects of habitat and spatial autocorrelation (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). # denotes 1-yr delayed effected of climate factors. NA denotes not analyzed due to small number of locations