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Table 2 Comparison of divergence times (in millions of years, Ma) of major clades in Galliformes between different studies

From: Divergence time estimation of Galliformes based on the best gene shopping scheme of ultraconserved elements

  This study Wang et al. 2017 [10] Stein et al. 2015 [38] Jetz et al. 2012 [41] Jarvis et al. 2014 [3] Prum et al. 2015 with Vegavis [5] Claramunt and Cracraft 2015 [42] Kuhl et al. 2020 [6]
Anas + Gallus 82.1, 69.5–96.5 74.5, 70.4–79.3 97.8 79.7, 70.5–88.5 65.8, 54.0–74.1 72.4, 68.3–77.6 72.5, 68–79.5 62.5, 57–65
Crown Galliformes 71.7, 60.1–84.2 66.8, 61.9–71.8 95.9, 83.8–108.3 62.0, 47.0–74.1   60.9, 47.8–73.0 58, 47.5–68 55.9, 49–61
Crown Megapodiidae 24.3, 18.4–30.8 19, 15.3–22.8 29.5 38.1, 23.6–53.2     
Cracidae-Sister clade 62.4, 52.0–73.7 61.1, 56.5–66.1 86.4, 75.7–98.7 55.7, 40.7–68.0     
Crown Cracidae 13.3, 10.4–16.7 8.7, 6.7–11.1 21.4, 18.8–24.1 14.6, 9.1–16.7     
Numididae-Sister clade 41.3, 35.4–47.8 44.9, 41.6–48.7 56.8, 49.4–64.5 33.3, 20.6–45.5     
Crown Numididae 10.6, 7.2–14.0 11.8, 9.5–14.5 17.6 15.2, 7.4–22.2     
Odontophoridae-Phasianidae 39.9, 34.0–45.9 42.8, 39.7–46.4 53.6,46.7–61.1 31.1, 17.8–42.1     
Crown Odontophoridae 35.2, 29.5–41.2 39.6, 36.1–43.3 45.2 29.5, 16.8–40.7     
Crown Phasianidae 35.4, 30.3–40.6 36, 33.6–38.9 46.4, 40.6–52.9 25.0, 13.8–35.2 27, 10.5–45    
Core odontophorid 19.4, 15.7–23.3 20.3, 17.3–23.4 27.8 23.4, 11.4–33.9     
Core phasianids 31.5, 27.2–36.2 31.9, 30.1–34.0 42 23.6, 13.2–32.9