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Table 5 Pairwise comparisons of the effect sizes of PLS analyses indicating the degree of morphological integration between the adjacent modules (significant differences with *; p < 0.05)

From: Cranial shape diversification in horses: variation and covariation patterns under the impact of artificial selection

  PLS effect size AON/MOL AON/ORB ORB/MOL ORB/CV MOL/ZP ZP/CV ZP/CB
AON/MOL 7.49        
AON/ORB 4.71 1.1e−01       
ORB/MOL 6.18 3.5e−01 5.7e−01      
ORB/CV 3.28 9.1e−03* 3.5e−01 9.6e−02     
MOL/ZP 3.24 9.1e−03* 3.4e−01 7.3e−02 9.1e−01    
ZP/CV 7.19 5.7e−01 3.4e−01 6.9e−01 3.2e−02* 3.0e−02*   
ZP/CB 4.01 6.6e−02 7.3e−01 3.5e−01 5.7e−01 5.5e−01 1.9e−01  
CB/CV 3.63 3.2e−02* 6.0e−01 2.6e−01 6.9e−01 6.5e−01 1.1e−01 7.9e−01
  1. The p-values were adjusted using a Benjamini–Hochberg correction
  2. AON anterior oral-nasal, ORB orbital, MOL molar, CB basicranium, ZP zygomatic-pterygoid, CV cranial vault