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Table 3 Parameter estimates for the best BiSSE model in our model set for each taxonomic group

From: Radiating pain: venom has contributed to the diversification of the largest radiations of vertebrate and invertebrate animals

Taxa λvenom λnovenom μ qgain qloss
Fishes 0.052 9.81 × 10–4 1.93 × 10–7 0.007 0.076
Insects 0.022 2.15 × 10–4 1.45 × 10–6 0.004 0.030
  1. For both fishes and insects the best model contain unequal speciation rates (higher for venomous lineages), equal extinction rates, and unequal transition rates (higher rates of loss than gain of venom). λvenom = speciation rate of venomous lineages, λnovenom = speciation rate of non-venomous lineages, μ = extinction rate, qgain = rate of gain of venom, qloss = rate of loss of venom