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Fig. 2 | BMC Ecology and Evolution

Fig. 2

From: Radiating pain: venom has contributed to the diversification of the largest radiations of vertebrate and invertebrate animals

Fig. 2Fig. 2

Gains of venom in fishes (a) and insects (b) based on ancestral state estimation. Pie charts represent the probability of a gain of venom where there is a minimum of P = 0.2 that the gain happened on that branch. Although the scale of the phylogenies prevents showing the tip labels we have included separate pdf versions of these plots as Additional file 2: Fig. S3, Additional file 3: Fig. S4, which contain visible Family names when enlarged. Representative fish species depicted at the right of the phylogeny are, from top to bottom, Plotosus lineatus (Plotosidae), Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae), Synanceia horrida (Synanceiidae), Echiichthys vipera (Trachinidae), Paracentropogon rubripinnis (Tetrarogidae), Meiacanthus grammistes (Blenniidae), Neotrygon kuhlii (Dasyatidae), and Heterodontus francisci (Heterodontidae). Representative insect species shown are, from top to bottom, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Reduviidae), Acharia stimulea (Limacodidae), Dysmachus trigonus (Asilidae), Aedes albopictus (Culicidae), Vespula vulgaris (Vespidae), and Solenopsis invicta (Formicidae)

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