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Table 2 Morphological characteristics and biomass of Helianthus tuberosus and Ageratina adenophora competition under different shade levels

From: Potential use of Helianthus tuberosus to suppress the invasive alien plant Ageratina adenophora under different shade levels

Variables Different shade rates
  60% 40% 20% 0%
Total shoot length (cm)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 95.51 ± 1.43d 116.10 ± 2.44c 136.04 ± 2.16b 173.62 ± 3.59a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 93.71 ± 1.85d 119.56 ± 1.47c 158.94 ± 3.22b 190.54 ± 4.51a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 45.67 ± 0.53d 53.20 ± 0.60c 72.33 ± 1.40b 96.21 ± 1.46a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 73.26 ± 1.65d 98.03 ± 1.55c 164.42 ± 3.06b 171.39 ± 2.26a
Main stem length (cm)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 84.27 ± 1.66d 99.23 ± 2.32c 108.31 ± 2.04b 138.06 ± 2.68a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 79.98 ± 1.75d 94.11 ± 1.41c 126.48 ± 3.35b 149.34 ± 3.60a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 32.52 ± 0.57d 37.96 ± 0.64c 50.28 ± 0.97b 60.79 ± 1.55a
 H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 56.78 ± 1.42d 67.31 ± 1.13c 111.06 ± 2.08a 84.72 ± 1.93b
Total branch length (cm)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 11.24 ± 0.31d 16.87 ± 0.19c 27.73 ± 0.33b 35.56 ± 1.13a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 13.72 ± 0.18d 25.45 ± 0.34c 32.46 ± 0.36b 41.19 ± 1.09a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 13.16 ± 0.46d 15.24 ± 0.25c 22.06 ± 0.60b 35.42 ± 0.50a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 16.49 ± 0.27d 30.72 ± 0.48c 53.37 ± 1.00b 86.67 ± 0.96a
Branch number
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 1.9 ± 0.3b 2.1 ± 0.3b 2.8 ± 0.6a 3.5 ± 0.4a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 2.5 ± 0.4b 2.8 ± 0.3b 3.4 ± 0.5ab 4.9 ± 0.5a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 3.4 ± 0.3d 4.2 ± 0.5c 6.1 ± 0.3b 9.4 ± 0.5a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 4.5 ± 0.4d 7.4 ± 0.5c 13.4 ± 0.5b 18.3 ± 0.9a
Leafstalk length (cm)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 5.36 ± 0.02c 5.50 ± 0.04b 5.78 ± 0.02a 5.80 ± 0.02a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 5.04 ± 0.03d 5.37 ± 0.01c 5.82 ± 0.02b 6.06 ± 0.03a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 3.19 ± 0.02d 3.31 ± 0.02c 3.37 ± 0.01b 3.45 ± 0.01a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 3.94 ± 0.02d 4.04 ± 0.02c 4.47 ± 0.01b 4.74 ± 0.02a
Leaf area (cm2)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 52.26 ± 0.13d 55.11 ± 0.12c 60.11 ± 0.17b 64.57 ± 0.59a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 51.88 ± 0.13d 56.36 ± 0.21c 61.75 ± 0.19b 66.18 ± 0.74a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 16.21 ± 0.21d 17.13 ± 0.15c 19.19 ± 0.13b 20.25 ± 0.16a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 26.23 ± 0.20d 30.28 ± 0.14c 35.22 ± 0.20b 38.34 ± 0.24a
Root biomass (g)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 95.31 ± 2.04d 155.03 ± 2.75c 200.62 ± 3.68b 236.97 ± 2.94a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 95.51 ± 1.89d 144.01 ± 1.66c 205.97 ± 2.50b 264.76 ± 3.38a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 1.38 ± 0.03d 2.25 ± 0.09c 2.75 ± 0.09b 4.20 ± 0.24a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 3.22 ± 0.16d 4.67 ± 0.21c 9.68 ± 0.49b 14.32 ± 0.30a
Aboveground biomass (g)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 67.78 ± 1.46d 72.30 ± 1.77c 90.90 ± 1.26b 95.16 ± 1.00a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 64.61 ± 1.09d 73.97 ± 1.03c 91.13 ± 1.89b 106.75 ± 3.43a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 3.33 ± 0.26d 5.55 ± 0.36c 8.96 ± 0.35b 14.31 ± 0.29a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 7.30 ± 0.16d 13.63 ± 0.49c 21.94 ± 0.62b 42.34 ± 1.43a
Total biomass (g)
 H. tuberosus
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 163.08 ± 2.86d 227.33 ± 2.58c 291.52 ± 4.52b 332.13 ± 3.79a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 160.12 ± 1.43d 217.98 ± 2.49c 297.10 ± 1.68b 371.50 ± 5.94a
 A. adenophora
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 4.71 ± 0.25d 7.79 ± 0.33c 11.72 ± 0.44b 18.51 ± 0.24a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 10.53 ± 0.17d 18.29 ± 0.41c 31.61 ± 0.84b 56.64 ± 1.21a
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Different letters within the same row signify significant differences at P < 0.05