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Table 4 Interpreting results of selected CCA models, comparing the 2016–19 current monitoring results from plots refaunated by large ungulates versus neglected plots (cf. Table 3), by species traits. Species ordination scores from the CCA were related to life history, climatic niche and conservation related traits via redundancy analysis (RDA), best-fitting combinations were forward-selected. See Additional file 4 for single effects of all traits to all models assessed

From: Restoring a butterfly hot spot by large ungulates refaunation: the case of the Milovice military training range, Czech Republic

Model % variation E1 E2 Axis1 F, P All axes F, P  
 ~ Refaunation | factorial year + latitude 5.5 0.070   4.5*   Host plant form—small forbs with refaunation, bulky plants towards neglect
 ~ Refaunation | factorial year + latitude + nectar 4.4 0.060   4.4*   Host plant form—as above
 ~ Refaunation + tanks | factorial year + latitude 2.4 0.040   2.5 +    Host plant form—as above
 ~ Refaunation + tanks | factorial year + latitude + nectar 4.4 0.060   3.8*   Host plant form—as above
 ~ Ungulates | factorial year + latitude 2.5 0.042   2.6 +    Host plant form—as above
 ~ Ungulates | factorial year + latitude + nectar 2.1 0.037   2.3 +    Wing span—increasing towards neglect
 ~ Ungulates + tanks | latitude + factorial year 1.7 0.034   2.1 +    Host plant form, small forbs with wild ungulates, bulky plants towards neglect
 ~ Ungulates + tanks | latitude + factorial year + nectar 3.1 0.056 0.007 3.4 +  2.0 +  Host plant form—as above
Wing span—increasing towards neglect
  1. +: P < 0.1, *: P < 0.05