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Table 2 Results of explaining species scores obtained from the correspondence analyses (CA) of three successive butterfly assemblages surveys (early 1990s, 2009, 2016–19) in the (former) Milovice military training range, by life history traits, climatic niche traits and conservation attributes of constituent species. See Table 5 for explanation of the traits

From: Restoring a butterfly hot spot by large ungulates refaunation: the case of the Milovice military training range, Czech Republic

  Life history traits Climatic niche traits Conservation attributes
Analysis Ordination axes: traits correlations % var Axis1
F, P
All axes
F, P
Ordination axes: traits correlations %
var
Axis1
F, P
All axes
F, P
Ordination axes: traits correlations % var Axis1
F, P
All axes
F, P
3-level    + Ax1: Oceanity NB;
−Ax1: Summer GDD NB
 + Ax2: Early summer GDD, Summer GDD
−Ax2: Summer GDD NB
17.0 14.5*** 5.0*** −Ax1: Distribution trend CZ; Current range CZ
−Ax2: Current range CZ
17.3 19.9*** 9.2***
3 level, arboreal/migrant spp. excluded −Ax1: Mobility 2.2 2.5 +   + Ax1: Precipitation NB
−Ax1: Early summer GDD
 + Ax2: Continentality NB
13.5 10.9** 4.5*** −Ax1: CZ distribution trend, CZ current range;
 + Ax2: CZ current range
20.8 13.4*** 9.8***
6-level −Ax1: Mobility 2.0 2.6* −Ax1: Summer GDD
 + Ax1: Summer GDD
2.5 3.0* −Ax1: CZ distribution trend, CZ current range;
−Ax2: CZ current range
18.6 15.9*** 12.5***
6 level, arboreal/migrant spp. excluded −Ax1: Mobility
−Ax2: Mobility
3.5 3.4* −Ax1: Summer GDD
 + Ax2: Summer GDD
2.4 2.6* −Ax1: CZ distribution trend, CZ current range;
−Ax2: CZ current range
20.2 14.7*** 9.5***
  1. 3-level analyses pooled individual sites surveyed, while 6-level analyses treated the grasslands sites S, C, and N separately, if allowed by the data. −/ + signs preceding the ordination axes Ax1–Ax4 values indicate the direction of the correlation with respective CA axes. %var, F and P values refer to Monte Carlo tests for the significance of the relationships between trait values and CA ordination scores