Skip to main content

Table 1 Survey results from the 12 L. album var. barbatum populations

From: Intraspecific convergence of floral size correlates with pollinator size on different mountains: a case study of a bumblebee-pollinated Lamium (Lamiaceae) flowers in Japan

  Location
  West area East area
  Shimashima I Shimashima II Ohmizusawa Onosawa Mitsumata Norikura Ougisawa Fujiidani Santanda Ushifuse Nakayamasawa Hirokoba
Visitation frequency             
Small bees (whole-body pollinators) total 7 87 189 20 7 13 29 26 28 16
Large bees (thrust pollinators) total 0 7 63 3 28 61 4 33 2 16 33 2
Eucera ssp. & Apis ssp. 7 33 2 16
Bombus ardens worker 12
B. honshuensis worker 14 40 4
B. honshuensis queen 29 1 4
B. diversus worker 3 1 12
B. diversus queen 1
B. consobrinus worker 3 8 2 12 1
B. consobrinus queen 17 27 2 1
Observation time (min) 540 230 600 270 215 357 90 450 450 410 660 130
Visitation rate (individual/h) 0.78 26.35 31.50 5.78 17.58 22.69 5.33 12.67 4.00 8.78 7.45 1.85
Average pollinator size (mm, all visitors) 11.38 11.78 13.41 10.05 23.61 14.05 24.91 12.44 11.91 12.57 15.72 23.46
Average pollinator size (mm, only large bees) 13.45 19.11 17.48 26.72 15.43 24.91 12.66 12.08 13.12 17.73 23.46
Average pollinator size (mm, only small bees) 11.38 11.65 11.60 11.11 11.18 8.85 12.20 11.89 12.26 11.59
Average floral size (mm ± SD) 25.91 (± 0.57)a 28.57 (± 0.90)d 29.21 (± 1.44)e 27.71 (± 0.76)c 30.53 (± 1.26)fg 28.55 (± 1.03)d 31.12 (± 0.92)g 27.06 (± 0.86)b 25.93 (± 0.79)a 26.78 (± 0.84)b 28.32 (± 1.35)d 30.01 (± 1.18)f
Census days 4 Apr–16 May 2018 20 May–6 Jun 2018 11 May –18 Jun 2018 1–6 Jun 2019 4–14 Jun 2019 17 Jun–9 Jul 2018 26 Jun–3 Jul 2019 17–23 May 2019 2–30 May 2019 10–31 May 2018 1–12 Jun 2019 21 Jun–1 Jul 2019
  1. Pollinator visitation frequencies in each 1 m × 1 m quadrat during the indicated observation time. The census days of each population are within the approximate peak flowering period of that population. Different lowercase letter superscripts to average floral size indicate significant differences between the populations (Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test, P < 0.05)