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Table 4 Summary of major biogeographic trends in different taxa and across New Guinea

From: New Guinean orogenic dynamics and biota evolution revealed using a custom geospatial analysis pipeline

Taxon Timing of early diversification in New Guinea Area of early diversification Early interaction Central Range/north coast areas? Timing of Bird's Head colonization/diversification Ancient diversification on or along "island arcs" (Proto Papuan Archipelago)? Central Range as barrier causing N-S vicariance
Flora       
Schefflera, Shee et al. [42] Late Oligocene, ca. 26 Ma "Woodlark", i.e. present day Eastern PNG Central Range/Papuan Peninsula, and some PNG north coast ranges Possibly Not clear, possibly from early Miocene, diversification from c. 5 Ma Not clear Late Oligocene, ca. 26 Ma
Insects       
Diving beetles, this study Early Miocene, ca. 17 Ma Present day Eastern PNG Central Range/Papuan Peninsula Yes Mid/late Miocene Early interaction since late Miocene, ca. 11 Ma, diversification from 5 Ma Possibly late Miocene, ca 8 Ma
Mayflies (Corrarolo et al. 2019) Eocene, ca. 40 Ma Ambiguous: north coast region or southern lowlands Yes Late Oligocene/mid Miocene Not applicable Not clear
Ants, Janda et al. [26] Mid-late Miocene 13–5 Ma Unclear Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No
Damselflies, Kalkman et al. [28] Not dated Present day Eastern PNG Central Range/Papuan Peninsula Possibly Not clear Possibly Not clear
Ground beetles, Liebherr [35] Not dated ? Emerging Central Range Possibly Not applicable Possibly Yes
Aquatic bugs, Polhemus & Polhemus [51] Starting late Eocene–Oligocene based on geological evidence Not applicable Possibly Early tertiary? Yes Not applicable
Microveliinae aquatic bugs, Polhemus & Polhemus [50] Late Oligocene—early Miocene, since 25 Ma Papuan Peninsula and its satellite islands Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Mammals       
Tree kangaroos, Eldridge et al. [36] Late Miocene, ca. 7 Ma Australia No ? Late Miocene No Maybe, Pleistocene, ca. 2 Ma
Herpetofauna      
Scincidae New Guinea skinks, Slavenko et al. [72] Mid Miocene, from ca. 14.4 Ma Central Range/Papuan Peninsula Mid Miocene, from ca. 11.6 Ma Not applicable No No
Agamidae forest dragons, Tallowin et al. [48] Late Oligocene—early Miocene, since 23 Ma Australian craton Early-mid Miocene, from ca. 23–10 Ma Mid Miocene, ca. 14 Ma Yes Possibly late Miocene-Pleistocene
Frogs, Rivera et al. [45] Late Oligocene to early Miocene, ca. 25-20 Ma N Australian plate margin/Central Range Possibly Possibly Possibly Possibly
Lizards, Oliver et al. [44] Early Oligocene, ca. 30 Ma North coast ranges and Papuan Pensinsula Early Miocene, ca. 22 Ma Late Miocene ca. 10 Ma Yes Not clear
Cyrtodactylus Lizards, Tallowin et al. [33] Early Miocene, ca. 24 Ma Southern New Guinea/north coast ranges/from mid Miocene Papuan Peninsula From early Miocene ca. 22 Ma Late Miocene ca. 10 Ma Yes Not clear
Green python, Natusch et al. [30] Not applicable Not applicable not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Yes, starting late Miocene ca. 6–3 Ma
Microhylid frog, Oliver et al. [31] Not dated Papuan Peninsula and its satellite islands Possibly Not applicable No Check
Microhylid frog, Oliver et al. [32] Early Miocene, ca. 17 Ma Central Range Early-mid Miocene, from ca. 17–10 Ma Not applicable Not applicable Yes, late Miocene ca. 10 Ma
Catbirds, Irestedt et al. [25] Late Miocene, 10 Ma Australia or proto-New Guinea Not applicable Late Miocene/Pleistocene Not applicable Yes, late Miocene, ca 6 Ma to Pliocene
Freshwater turtle, Georges et al. [24] Early Miocene, ca. 19 Ma ? NG southern lowlands Not applicable Mid Miocene Not applicable Yes, early Miocene, ca 17 Ma
Freshwater turtle, Todd et al. [37] Late Miocene, 10–7 Ma ? N Australia/? NG southern lowlands Not applicable Late Miocene Not applicable Yes, late Miocene, ca 6 Ma
Birds       
Corvoid birds, Jønsson et al. [27] Late Eocene, ca. 40 Ma Proto Papuan Archipelago Not applicable Not applicable Yes, late Eocene Not applicable
Passerine birds, Aggerbeck et al. [43] Early Oligocene, ca. 32 Ma Australia/New Guinea Not clear Not applicable Yes Not applicable
Fruit doves, Cibois et al. [38] Early Oligocene, ca. 32 Ma Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Lories and lorikeets, Schweizer et al. [40] Late Miocene ca. 10 Ma Proto Papuan Archipelago Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Songbrids, Moyle et al. [29] Mid Miocene, ca. 15 Ma Australia Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Crowned pigeons, Bruxaux et al. [47] Late Miocene ca. 5 Ma, root goes back to early Miocene Not applicable No Between late Miocene ca. 5 Ma and Pleistocene No Yes, between late Miocene ca. 5 Ma and Pleistocene
Fish       
Rainbow fish, Unmack et al. [34] Early Oligocene, ca. 30 Ma Not applicable Not applicable Early Oligocene, ca. 32 Ma Yes Not clear, north/south vicariance dated at 27.0 Ma